Local Government Act 1993 No 30
Current version for 1 July 2020 to date (accessed 12 August 2020 at 08:42)
Status information

Status information

Currency of version
Current version for 1 July 2020 to date (accessed 12 August 2020 at 08:42)
Legislation on this site is usually updated within 3 working days after a change to the legislation.

Provisions in force
The provisions displayed in this version of the legislation have all commenced. See Historical Notes

Does not include amendments by—
Water Industry Competition Amendment (Review) Act 2014 No 57 (not commenced)
Local Government Amendment (Governance and Planning) Act 2016 No 38, Sch 1[4] [27] [31] [34] [35] [40] [41] [75]–[77] [84] and [85] (not commenced)
Local Government Amendment Act 2019 No 6, Sch 1[4] and [15]–[20] (not commenced)
Sec 318B(8) of this Act (sec 318B(8) repeals sec 318B(1)(a1) and (8) on 26.3.2021)
Sec 747B(5) of this Act (sec 747B(5) repeals sec 747B on 26.9.2020 or a later day prescribed by the regulations but not later than 26.3.2021)
See also—
Local Government Amendment (Disqualification from Civic Office) Bill 2020 [Non-government Bill— The Hon Walt Secord, MLC]

Responsible Minister
Minister for Energy and Environment, Part 2A of Chapter 6; remainder, Minister for Local Government

Authorisation
This version of the legislation is compiled and maintained in a database of legislation by the Parliamentary Counsel's Office and published on the NSW legislation website, and is certified as the form of that legislation that is correct under section 45C of the Interpretation Act 1987.

File last modified 1 July 2020.

An Act to provide for local government in New South Wales.
Chapter 1 Preliminary
1   Name of Act
This Act may be cited as the Local Government Act 1993.
2   Commencement
This Act commences on a day or days to be appointed by proclamation.
3   Definitions
Expressions used in this Act (or in a particular provision of this Act) which are defined in the dictionary at the end of this Act have the meanings set out in the dictionary.
4   Does this Act bind the Crown?
This Act binds the Crown in right of New South Wales and, in so far as the legislative power of Parliament permits, the Crown in all its other capacities, except to the extent to which this Act otherwise provides.
Note.
 Particular provisions relating to the Crown are found in the following sections—
  sections 72–74—concerning determination of Crown applications for approvals
  section 111—concerning revocation or modification of approvals given to the Crown
  section 126—concerning the giving of orders affecting Crown land (including Crown managed land) and commons
  sections 555 and 561—concerning rates and charges on land owned by the Crown
  section 560—concerning the liability to pay rates in respect of land owned by the Crown
  section 611—concerning the imposition of an annual charge for certain things on, under or over public places
  section 708—service of notices on the Crown
  section 714—prohibition on sale of Crown lands for unpaid rates and charges
5   To what parts of the State does this Act apply?
This Act applies to those parts of the State that are constituted as areas for the purposes of this Act, except as provided by or under this Act.
Note.
 This Act does not apply to the whole of New South Wales. Some parts of the State do not come within a local government area. For example, parts of the Western Division of the State (to which the Crown Land Management Act 2016 applies) and Lord Howe Island (to which the Lord Howe Island Act 1953 applies) are not subject to this Act.
Some local government areas or parts may not be subject to this Act (or to all of its provisions) because of special statutory exceptions. Other exceptions may be provided by regulations made under this Act.
6   Notes in the text
Notes, charts and diagrams are explanatory notes and do not form part of this Act. They are provided to assist understanding.
Chapter 2 What are the purposes of this Act?
7   Purposes of Act
The purposes of this Act are as follows—
(a)  to provide the legal framework for the system of local government for New South Wales,
(b)  to set out the responsibilities and powers of councils, councillors and other persons and bodies that constitute the system of local government,
(c)  to provide for governing bodies of councils that are democratically elected,
(d)  to facilitate engagement with the local community by councils, councillors and other persons and bodies that constitute the system of local government,
(e)  to provide for a system of local government that is accountable to the community and that is sustainable, flexible and effective.
 
The system of local government in New South Wales
Chapter 3 Principles for local government
8   Object of principles
The object of the principles for councils set out in this Chapter is to provide guidance to enable councils to carry out their functions in a way that facilitates local communities that are strong, healthy and prosperous.
8A   Guiding principles for councils
(1) Exercise of functions generally The following general principles apply to the exercise of functions by councils—
(a)  Councils should provide strong and effective representation, leadership, planning and decision-making.
(b)  Councils should carry out functions in a way that provides the best possible value for residents and ratepayers.
(c)  Councils should plan strategically, using the integrated planning and reporting framework, for the provision of effective and efficient services and regulation to meet the diverse needs of the local community.
(d)  Councils should apply the integrated planning and reporting framework in carrying out their functions so as to achieve desired outcomes and continuous improvements.
(e)  Councils should work co-operatively with other councils and the State government to achieve desired outcomes for the local community.
(f)  Councils should manage lands and other assets so that current and future local community needs can be met in an affordable way.
(g)  Councils should work with others to secure appropriate services for local community needs.
(h)  Councils should act fairly, ethically and without bias in the interests of the local community.
(i)  Councils should be responsible employers and provide a consultative and supportive working environment for staff.
(2) Decision-making The following principles apply to decision-making by councils (subject to any other applicable law)—
(a)  Councils should recognise diverse local community needs and interests.
(b)  Councils should consider social justice principles.
(c)  Councils should consider the long term and cumulative effects of actions on future generations.
(d)  Councils should consider the principles of ecologically sustainable development.
(e)  Council decision-making should be transparent and decision-makers are to be accountable for decisions and omissions.
(3) Community participation Councils should actively engage with their local communities, through the use of the integrated planning and reporting framework and other measures.
8B   Principles of sound financial management
The following principles of sound financial management apply to councils—
(a)  Council spending should be responsible and sustainable, aligning general revenue and expenses.
(b)  Councils should invest in responsible and sustainable infrastructure for the benefit of the local community.
(c)  Councils should have effective financial and asset management, including sound policies and processes for the following—
(i)  performance management and reporting,
(ii)  asset maintenance and enhancement,
(iii)  funding decisions,
(iv)  risk management practices.
(d)  Councils should have regard to achieving intergenerational equity, including ensuring the following—
(i)  policy decisions are made after considering their financial effects on future generations,
(ii)  the current generation funds the cost of its services.
8C   Integrated planning and reporting principles that apply to councils
The following principles for strategic planning apply to the development of the integrated planning and reporting framework by councils—
(a)  Councils should identify and prioritise key local community needs and aspirations and consider regional priorities.
(b)  Councils should identify strategic goals to meet those needs and aspirations.
(c)  Councils should develop activities, and prioritise actions, to work towards the strategic goals.
(d)  Councils should ensure that the strategic goals and activities to work towards them may be achieved within council resources.
(e)  Councils should regularly review and evaluate progress towards achieving strategic goals.
(f)  Councils should maintain an integrated approach to planning, delivering, monitoring and reporting on strategic goals.
(g)  Councils should collaborate with others to maximise achievement of strategic goals.
(h)  Councils should manage risks to the local community or area or to the council effectively and proactively.
(i)  Councils should make appropriate evidence-based adaptations to meet changing needs and circumstances.
Chapter 4 How can the community influence what a council does?
Part 1 Open meetings
9   Public notice of meetings
(1)  A council must give notice to the public of the times and places of its meetings and meetings of those of its committees of which all the members are councillors.
(2)  A council and each such committee must have available for the public at its offices and at each meeting copies (for inspection or taking away by any person) of the agenda and the associated business papers (such as correspondence and reports) for the meeting.
(2A)  In the case of a meeting whose agenda includes the receipt of information or discussion of other matters that, in the opinion of the general manager, is likely to take place when the meeting is closed to the public—
(a)  the agenda for the meeting must indicate that the relevant item of business is of such a nature (but must not give details of that item), and
(b)  the requirements of subsection (2) with respect to the availability of business papers do not apply to the business papers for that item of business.
(3)  The copies are to be available to the public as nearly as possible to the time they are available to councillors.
(4)  The copies are to be available free of charge.
(5)  A notice given under this section or a copy of an agenda or of a business paper made available under this section may in addition be given or made available in electronic form.
10   Who is entitled to attend meetings?
(1)  Except as provided by this Part—
(a)  everyone is entitled to attend a meeting of the council and those of its committees of which all the members are councillors, and
(b)  a council must ensure that all meetings of the council and of such committees are open to the public.
(2)  However, a person (whether a councillor or another person) is not entitled to be present at a meeting of the council or of such a committee if expelled from the meeting—
(a)  by a resolution of the meeting, or
(b)  by the person presiding at the meeting if the council has, by resolution, authorised the person presiding to exercise the power of expulsion.
(3)  A person may be expelled from a meeting only on the grounds specified in, or in the circumstances prescribed by, the regulations.
10A   Which parts of a meeting can be closed to the public?
(1)  A council, or a committee of the council of which all the members are councillors, may close to the public so much of its meeting as comprises—
(a)  the discussion of any of the matters listed in subclause (2), or
(b)  the receipt or discussion of any of the information so listed.
(2)  The matters and information are the following—
(a)  personnel matters concerning particular individuals (other than councillors),
(b)  the personal hardship of any resident or ratepayer,
(c)  information that would, if disclosed, confer a commercial advantage on a person with whom the council is conducting (or proposes to conduct) business,
(d)  commercial information of a confidential nature that would, if disclosed—
(i)  prejudice the commercial position of the person who supplied it, or
(ii)  confer a commercial advantage on a competitor of the council, or
(iii)  reveal a trade secret,
(e)  information that would, if disclosed, prejudice the maintenance of law,
(f)  matters affecting the security of the council, councillors, council staff or council property,
(g)  advice concerning litigation, or advice that would otherwise be privileged from production in legal proceedings on the ground of legal professional privilege,
(h)  information concerning the nature and location of a place or an item of Aboriginal significance on community land,
(i)  alleged contraventions of any code of conduct requirements applicable under section 440.
(3)  A council, or a committee of the council of which all the members are councillors, may also close to the public so much of its meeting as comprises a motion to close another part of the meeting to the public.
(4)  A council, or a committee of a council, may allow members of the public to make representations to or at a meeting, before any part of the meeting is closed to the public, as to whether that part of the meeting should be closed.
(5), (6)    (Repealed)
10B   Further limitations relating to closure of parts of meetings to public
(1)  A meeting is not to remain closed during the discussion of anything referred to in section 10A(2)—
(a)  except for so much of the discussion as is necessary to preserve the relevant confidentiality, privilege or security, and
(b)  if the matter concerned is a matter other than a personnel matter concerning particular individuals, the personal hardship of a resident or ratepayer or a trade secret—unless the council or committee concerned is satisfied that discussion of the matter in an open meeting would, on balance, be contrary to the public interest.
(2)  A meeting is not to be closed during the receipt and consideration of information or advice referred to in section 10A(2)(g) unless the advice concerns legal matters that—
(a)  are substantial issues relating to a matter in which the council or committee is involved, and
(b)  are clearly identified in the advice, and
(c)  are fully discussed in that advice.
(3)  If a meeting is closed during the discussion of a motion to close another part of the meeting to the public (as referred to in section 10A(3)), the consideration of the motion must not include any consideration of the matter or information to be discussed in that other part of the meeting (other than consideration of whether the matter concerned is a matter referred to in section 10A(2)).
(4)  For the purpose of determining whether the discussion of a matter in an open meeting would be contrary to the public interest, it is irrelevant that—
(a)  a person may misinterpret or misunderstand the discussion, or
(b)  the discussion of the matter may—
(i)  cause embarrassment to the council or committee concerned, or to councillors or to employees of the council, or
(ii)  cause a loss of confidence in the council or committee.
(5)  In deciding whether part of a meeting is to be closed to the public, the council or committee concerned must have regard to any relevant guidelines issued by the Departmental Chief Executive.
10C   Notice of likelihood of closure not required in urgent cases
Part of a meeting of a council, or of a committee of the council of which all the members are councillors, may be closed to the public while the council or committee considers a matter that has not been identified in the agenda for the meeting as a matter that is likely to be considered when the meeting is closed, but only if—
(a)  it becomes apparent during the discussion of a particular matter that the matter is a matter referred to in section 10A(2), and
(b)  the council or committee, after considering any representations made under section 10A(4), resolves that further discussion of the matter—
(i)  should not be deferred (because of the urgency of the matter), and
(ii)  should take place in a part of the meeting that is closed to the public.
10D   Grounds for closing part of meeting to be specified
(1)  The grounds on which part of a meeting is closed must be stated in the decision to close that part of the meeting and must be recorded in the minutes of the meeting.
(2)  The grounds must specify the following—
(a)  the relevant provision of section 10A(2),
(b)  the matter that is to be discussed during the closed part of the meeting,
(c)  the reasons why the part of the meeting is being closed, including (if the matter concerned is a matter other than a personnel matter concerning particular individuals, the personal hardship of a resident or ratepayer or a trade secret) an explanation of the way in which discussion of the matter in an open meeting would be, on balance, contrary to the public interest.
10E   (Repealed)
11   Public access to correspondence and reports
(1)  A council and a committee of which all the members are councillors must, during or at the close of a meeting, or during the business day following the meeting, give reasonable access to any person to inspect correspondence and reports laid on the table at, or submitted to, the meeting.
(2)  This section does not apply if the correspondence or reports—
(a)  relate to a matter that was received or discussed, or
(b)  were laid on the table at, or submitted to, the meeting,
when the meeting was closed to the public.
(3)  This section does not apply if the council or committee resolves at the meeting, when open to the public, that the correspondence or reports, because they relate to a matter specified in section 10A(2), are to be treated as confidential.
Part 2
12–13  (Repealed)
Part 3 Expressions of community opinion
Division 1 Council polls
14   Council polls
A council may take a poll of electors for its information and guidance on any matter.
Division 2 Constitutional referendums
15   What is a constitutional referendum?
A constitutional referendum is a poll initiated by a council in order to give effect to a matter referred to in section 16.
16   What matters must be dealt with at a constitutional referendum?
A council may not do any of the following unless approval to do so has been given at a constitutional referendum—
(a)  divide its area into wards or abolish all wards in its area,
(b)  change the basis on which the mayor attains office (that is, by election by the councillors or by election by the electors),
(c)  increase or decrease the number of councillors in accordance with the limits under section 224,
(d)  change the method of ordinary election of councillors for an area divided into wards.
(e)    (Repealed)
17   What is the effect of a constitutional referendum?
(1)  The decision made at a constitutional referendum binds the council until changed by a subsequent constitutional referendum.
(2)  However, such a decision does not apply to a by-election held after the constitutional referendum and before the next ordinary election.
Division 3 General provisions concerning a council poll or constitutional referendum
18   What provisions apply to the conduct of a council poll or constitutional referendum?
Part 1 and Part 6 (except Divisions 3, 4 and 5) of Chapter 10 (How are people elected to civic office?) apply to a council poll, and Part 1 and Part 6 (except Divisions 3 and 5) of that Chapter apply to a constitutional referendum, with such modifications as may be necessary, in the same way as they apply to an election.
Note.
 Part 1 of Chapter 10 identifies the people who are entitled to vote in council elections, and Part 6 governs the conduct of those elections.
Division 3 of Part 6 of that Chapter deals with nominations for election, Division 4 with failure to vote and Division 5 with miscellaneous matters such as irregularities of form or procedure in elections, overdue elections and those declared void.
19   Day for taking council poll or constitutional referendum
A council poll or constitutional referendum may be taken on any Saturday, including the Saturday of an ordinary election.
20   When is a question at a council poll or constitutional referendum carried?
(1)  The question at a council poll or constitutional referendum is carried if it is supported by a majority of the votes cast.
(2)  The reference to votes in subsection (1) does not include a reference to any vote that, pursuant to the regulations, is found to be informal.
 
Expressions of community opinion
Types of expression
Council Poll
Constitutional Referendum
Question to be determined
Any question
  Creation or abolition of all wards
  Change in the way in which the mayor is chosen
  Change in number of councillors
  Change in the way councillors are elected for an area divided into wards
Result of Poll
If Yes
If No
If Yes
If No
Council chooses whether or not to proceed
Change must proceed
Change cannot proceed until passed by a later constitutional referendum
Chapter 5 What are a council’s functions?
21   Functions under this Act
A council has the functions conferred or imposed on it by or under this Act.
Note.
 This Act classifies certain of a council’s functions as service, that is, non-regulatory (Chapter 6), regulatory (Chapter 7) or ancillary (Chapter 8). Ancillary functions are those functions that assist the carrying out of a council’s service and regulatory functions.
A council also has revenue functions (Chapter 15), administrative functions (Chapters 11, 12 and 13) and functions relating to the enforcement of this Act (Chapters 16 and 17).
22   Other functions
A council has the functions conferred or imposed on it by or under any other Act or law.
Note.
 While the main functions of councils are provided for under this Act, councils also have functions under other Acts. An important general provision is contained in section 50 of the Interpretation Act 1987 which provides, in part—
(1)  A statutory corporation—
(a)  has perpetual succession,
(b)  shall have a seal,
(c)  may take proceedings and be proceeded against in its corporate name,
(d)  may, for the purpose of enabling it to exercise its functions, purchase, exchange, take on lease, hold, dispose of and otherwise deal with property, and
(e)  may do and suffer all other things that bodies corporate may, by law, do and suffer and that are necessary for, or incidental to, the exercise of its functions …
(4)  This section applies to a statutory corporation in addition to, and without limiting the effect of, any provision of the Act by or under which the corporation is constituted.
Some other Acts and some of the functions they confer include—
planning functions as consent authority
companion animal registration and control
placing covenants on council land
environmental planning
payment of contributions to fire brigade costs and furnishing of returns
fluoridation of water supply by council
inspection of food and food premises
impounding of animals and articles
library services
pollution control
inspection of systems for purposes of microbial control
restricting use of recreation vehicles
roads
issue of permits to light fires during bush fire danger periods
 
requiring the furnishing of information to the Rural Fire Service Advisory Council and its Co-ordinating Committee
recommending appointment of local commander
approval of strata plans
ensuring restriction of access to swimming pools
The exercise by a council of its functions under this Act may also be modified by the provisions of another Act. Some of those Acts and some of the modifications they effect include—
forfeiture of council functions to person appointed by Governor
council required to publish certain information and to grant access to certain documents
rating based on heritage valuation
council required to amend certain records that are shown to be incomplete, incorrect, out of date or misleading
council required to prepare for emergencies
unclaimed money to be paid to the Chief Commissioner of Unclaimed Money
23   Supplementary, incidental and consequential functions
A council may do all such things as are supplemental or incidental to, or consequential on, the exercise of its functions.
23A   Departmental Chief Executive’s guidelines
(1)  For the purposes of this Act, the Departmental Chief Executive may from time to time prepare, adopt or vary guidelines relating to the exercise by a council of any of its functions.
(2)  The Departmental Chief Executive may only prepare, adopt or vary guidelines relating to the exercise by a council of functions conferred or imposed on the council by or under any Act or law that is not administered by or the responsibility of the Department of Local Government if the Departmental Chief Executive has first obtained the concurrence of the Minister administering or responsible for the administration of the other Act or law.
(3)  A council must take any relevant guidelines issued under this section into consideration before exercising any of its functions.
(4)  The guidelines for the time being in force are to be made available to councils on request and, on payment of such fee (if any) as the Departmental Chief Executive may determine, to any interested person.
 
WHAT ARE A COUNCIL’S FUNCTIONS?
A COUNCIL EXERCISES FUNCTIONS UNDER
THIS ACT
OTHER ACTS
SERVICE FUNCTIONS
REGULATORY FUNCTIONS
ANCILLARY FUNCTIONS
REVENUE FUNCTIONS
ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS
ENFORCEMENT FUNCTIONS
VARIOUS FUNCTIONS
For example—
• Providing community health, recreation, education & information services
• Environmental protection
• Waste removal & disposal
• Land & property, industry & tourism development & assistance
• Approvals
• Orders
• Building certificates
• Resumption of land
• Powers of entry and inspection
• Rates
• Charges
• Fees
• Borrowings
• Investments
For example
• Employment of staff
• Management plans
• Financial reporting
• Annual reports
For example
• Proceedings for breaches of the Act
• Prosecution of offences
• Recovery of rates and charges
See the Note to section 22
Chapter 6 What are the service functions of councils?
Part 1 General
24   Provision of goods, services and facilities and carrying out of activities
A council may provide goods, services and facilities, and carry out activities, appropriate to the current and future needs within its local community and of the wider public, subject to this Act, the regulations and any other law.
Part 2 Public land
Note.
 This Part requires all land vested in a council (except a road or land to which the Crown Land Management Act 2016 applies) to be classified as either “community” or “operational”.
The classification will generally be achieved by a local environmental plan but may, in some circumstances, be achieved by resolution of the council (see sections 31, 32 and 33).
The purpose of classification is to identify clearly that land which should be kept for use by the general public (community) and that land which need not (operational). The major consequence of classification is that it determines the ease or difficulty with which land may be alienated by sale, leasing or some other means.
Community land must not be sold (except in the limited circumstances referred to in section 45(4)). Community land must not be leased or licensed for more than 21 years and may only be leased or licensed for more than 5 years if public notice of the proposed lease or licence is given and, in the event that an objection is made to the proposed lease or licence, the Minister’s consent is obtained. No such restrictions apply to operational land.
Classification or reclassification of land does not affect any estate or interest a council has in the land.
Community land would ordinarily comprise land such as a public park. Operational land would ordinarily comprise land held as a temporary asset or as an investment, land which facilitates the carrying out by a council of its functions or land which may not be open to the general public, such as a works depot or a council garage.
The use and management of community land is to be regulated by a plan of management. Until a plan of management is adopted, the nature and use of the land must not change.
Division 1 Classification and reclassification of public land
25   All public land must be classified
All public land must be classified in accordance with this Part.
26   What are the classifications?
There are 2 classifications for public land—“community” and “operational”.
Note.
 On the commencement of this Part, certain land that is vested in or under the control of a council is taken to have been classified as community land by the operation of clause 6 of Schedule 7.
27   How are the classifications made?
(1)  The classification or reclassification of public land may be made by a local environmental plan.
(2)  The classification or reclassification of public land may also be made by a resolution of the council under section 31, 32 or 33.
28   Forwarding of planning proposals to Minister for Planning
(1)  A council may not forward a planning proposal to the Minister for Planning under section 56 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 which includes a proposal to classify or reclassify public land that is not owned by the council unless the council has obtained the consent of the owner to the proposed classification or reclassification of public land.
(2)  A local environmental plan that classifies or reclassifies public land may apply to one or more areas of public land.
29   Public hearing into reclassification
(1)  A council must arrange a public hearing under section 57 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 in respect of a planning proposal under Part 3 of that Act to reclassify community land as operational land, unless a public hearing has already been held in respect of the same matter as a result of a determination under section 56(2)(e) of that Act.
(2)  A council must, before making any resolution under section 32, arrange a public hearing in respect of any proposal to reclassify land as operational land by such a resolution.
30   Reclassification of community land as operational
(1)  A local environmental plan that reclassifies community land as operational land may make provision to the effect that, on commencement of the plan, the land, if it is a public reserve, ceases to be a public reserve, and that the land is by operation of the plan discharged from any trusts, estates, interests, dedications, conditions, restrictions and covenants affecting the land or any part of the land, except for—
(a)  any reservations that except land out of a Crown grant relating to the land, and
(b)  reservations of minerals (within the meaning of the Crown Land Management Act 2016).
(2)  A provision referred to in subsection (1) has effect according to its tenor, but only if the Governor has, before the making of the local environmental plan, approved of the provision.
31   Classification of land acquired after 1 July 1993
(1)  This section applies to land that is acquired by a council after the commencement of this Division, other than—
(a)  land to which the Crown Lands Act 1989 or the Crown Land Management Act 2016 applied before the acquisition and continues to apply after the acquisition, and
(b)  land that is acquired for the purpose of a road.
(2)  Before a council acquires land, or within 3 months after it acquires land, a council may resolve (in accordance with this Part) that the land be classified as community land or operational land.
(2A)  Any land acquired by a council that is not classified under subsection (2) is, at the end of the period of 3 months referred to in that subsection, taken to have been classified under a local environmental plan as community land.
(2B)  While the land remains unclassified—
(a)  the land may not be used for any purpose other than that for which it was being used immediately before it was acquired, and
(b)  the council may not dispose of any interest in the land.
(3)  A council must not resolve under this section that land be classified as operational land if—
(a)  the land is classified as community land immediately before its acquisition, or
(b)  the resolution would be inconsistent with any other Act, the terms of any trust applying to the land or the terms of any instrument executed by the donor or transferor of the land.
32   Reclassification of land dedicated under sec 94 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979
(1)  A council may resolve that land dedicated in accordance with a condition imposed under section 94 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 is to be reclassified as operational land.
(2)  A council may make such a resolution only if it is satisfied that the land has been found to be unsuitable for the provision, extension or augmentation of public amenities and public services because of any one or more of the following—
  the size of the land
  the shape of the land
  the topography of the land
  the location of the land
  the difficulty of providing public access to the land.
(3)  The council must specify in the resolution the grounds on which it is satisfied the land is unsuitable.
(4)  Before making the resolution, the council must give public notice of the resolution. The public notice must specify a period of not less than 28 days during which submissions may be made to the council.
(5)  The net proceeds of sale by a council of any land dedicated in accordance with a condition imposed under section 94 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 must be dealt with under that section as if those net proceeds were a monetary contribution paid instead of the dedication.
33   Reclassification of operational land as community land
(1)  A council may resolve that public land classified as operational land is to be reclassified as community land.
(2)    (Repealed)
34   Public notice to be given of classification or reclassification by council resolution
(1)  A council must give public notice of a proposed resolution to classify or reclassify public land.
(2)  The public notice must include the terms of the proposed resolution and a description of the public land concerned.
(3)  The public notice must specify a period of not less than 28 days during which submissions may be made to the council.
(4)    (Repealed)
Division 2 Use and management of community land
35   What governs the use and management of community land?
Community land is required to be used and managed in accordance with the following—
  the plan of management applying to the land
  any law permitting the use of the land for a specified purpose or otherwise regulating the use of the land
  this Division.
36   Preparation of draft plans of management for community land
(1)  A council must prepare a draft plan of management for community land.
(2)  A draft plan of management may apply to one or more areas of community land, except as provided by this Division.
(3)  A plan of management for community land must identify the following—
(a)  the category of the land,
(b)  the objectives and performance targets of the plan with respect to the land,
(c)  the means by which the council proposes to achieve the plan’s objectives and performance targets,
(d)  the manner in which the council proposes to assess its performance with respect to the plan’s objectives and performance targets,
and may require the prior approval of the council to the carrying out of any specified activity on the land.
(3A)  A plan of management that applies to just one area of community land—
(a)  must include a description of—
(i)  the condition of the land, and of any buildings or other improvements on the land, as at the date of adoption of the plan of management, and
(ii)  the use of the land and any such buildings or improvements as at that date, and
(b)  must—
(i)  specify the purposes for which the land, and any such buildings or improvements, will be permitted to be used, and
(ii)  specify the purposes for which any further development of the land will be permitted, whether under lease or licence or otherwise, and
(iii)  describe the scale and intensity of any such permitted use or development.
(4)  For the purposes of this section, land is to be categorised as one or more of the following—
(a)  a natural area,
(b)  a sportsground,
(c)  a park,
(d)  an area of cultural significance,
(e)  general community use.
(5)  Land that is categorised as a natural area is to be further categorised as one or more of the following—
(a)  bushland,
(b)  wetland,
(c)  escarpment,
(d)  watercourse,
(e)  foreshore,
(f)  a category prescribed by the regulations.
(6)  The regulations may make provision for or with respect to the categorisation of community land under this section, including—
(a)  defining any expression used in subsection (4) or (5), and
(b)  prescribing guidelines for the categorisation of community land and the effect of any guidelines so prescribed.
36A   Community land comprising the habitat of endangered species
(1)  In this section—
critical habitat means—
(a)  an area declared to be critical habitat under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995, or
(b)  an area declared to be critical habitat under Part 7A of the Fisheries Management Act 1994.
relevant Director means—
(a)  in relation to critical habitat being an area declared to be critical habitat under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995, the Chief Executive of the Office of Environment and Heritage, and
(b)  in relation to critical habitat being an area declared to be critical habitat under Part 7A of the Fisheries Management Act 1994, the Secretary of the Department of Industry, Skills and Regional Development.
(2)  A plan of management adopted in respect of an area of community land, all or part of which consists of critical habitat, is to apply to that area only, and not to other areas of land.
(3)  A plan of management to be adopted for an area of community land, all or part of which consists of critical habitat—
(a)  must, subject to any decision of the Chief Executive of the Office of Environment and Heritage under section 146 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or any decision of the Secretary of the Department of Industry, Skills and Regional Development under section 220Y of the Fisheries Management Act 1994, state that the land, or the relevant part, is critical habitat, and
(b)  must, in complying with section 36(3)(a), categorise the land, or the relevant part, as a natural area, and
(c)  must, in complying with section 36(3)(b), (c) and (d), identify objectives, performance targets and other matters that—
(i)  take account of the existence of the critical habitat, and
(ii)  are consistent with the objects of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or the Fisheries Management Act 1994, as the case requires, and
(iii)  incorporate the core objectives prescribed under section 36 in respect of community land categorised as a natural area, and
(d)  must—
(i)  when public notice is given of the draft plan under section 38, be sent (or a copy must be sent) by the council to the relevant Director, and
(ii)  incorporate any matter specified by the relevant Director in relation to the land, or the relevant part.
(4)  If, after the adoption of a plan of management applying to just one area of community land, all or part of that area becomes critical habitat—
(a)  the plan of management is taken to be amended, as from the date the declaration took effect, to categorise the land or the relevant part as a natural area, and
(b)  the council must amend the plan of management (and, in doing so, the provisions of subsection (3)(a), (c) and (d) apply to the amendment of the plan of management in the same way as they apply to the adoption of a plan of management), and
(c)  until the plan of management has been amended as required by paragraph (b)—
(i)  the use of the land must not be varied, except to the extent necessary to further the objects of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or the Fisheries Management Act 1994, as the case requires, or in order to give effect to the core objectives prescribed under section 36 in respect of community land categorised as a natural area, or to terminate the use, and
(ii)  no lease, licence or other estate may be granted in respect of the land.
(5)  If, after the adoption of a plan of management applying to several areas of community land, all or part of one of those areas becomes critical habitat—
(a)  the plan of management ceases, as from the date the declaration took effect, to apply to that area, and
(b)  a plan of management must be prepared and adopted by the council for that area, and
(c)  the plan of management so prepared and adopted must comply with subsection (3).
36B   Community land comprising the habitat of threatened species
(1)  In this section—
recovery plan means a recovery plan under Part 4 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or Division 5 of Part 7A of the Fisheries Management Act 1994.
relevant Director means—
(a)  in relation to a recovery plan under Part 4 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or a threat abatement plan under Part 5 of that Act, the Chief Executive of the Office of Environment and Heritage, and
(b)  in relation to a recovery plan or a threat abatement plan under Division 5 of Part 7A of the Fisheries Management Act 1994, the Secretary of the Department of Industry, Skills and Regional Development.
threat abatement plan means a threat abatement plan under Part 5 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or Division 5 of Part 7A of the Fisheries Management Act 1994.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, land is directly affected by a recovery plan or threat abatement plan only if the plan concerned requires measures specified in the plan to be taken by a specified council on or in respect of the land.
(3)  A plan of management adopted in respect of an area of community land, all or part of which is directly affected by a recovery plan or threat abatement plan, is to apply to that area only, and not to other areas of land.
(4)  A plan of management to be adopted for an area of community land, all or part of which is directly affected by a recovery plan or threat abatement plan—
(a)  must state that the land, or the relevant part, is so affected, and
(b)  must, in complying with section 36(3)(a), categorise the land, or the relevant part, as a natural area, and
(c)  must, in complying with section 36(3)(b), (c) and (d), identify objectives, performance targets and other matters that—
(i)  take account of the council’s obligations under the recovery plan or threat abatement plan in relation to the land, and
(ii)  are otherwise consistent with the objects of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or the Fisheries Management Act 1994, as the case requires, and
(iii)  incorporate the core objectives prescribed under section 36 in respect of community land categorised as a natural area, and
(d)  must—
(i)  when public notice is given of the draft plan under section 38, be sent (or a copy must be sent) by the council to the relevant Director, and
(ii)  incorporate any matter specified by the relevant Director in relation to the land, or the relevant part.
(5)  If, after the adoption of a plan of management applying to just one area of community land, all or part of that area becomes directly affected by a recovery plan or threat abatement plan—
(a)  the plan of management is taken to be amended, as from the date the declaration took effect, to categorise the land or the relevant part as a natural area, and
(b)  the council must amend the plan of management (and, in doing so, the provisions of subsection (4)(a), (c) and (d) apply to the amendment of the plan of management in the same way as they apply to the adoption of a plan of management), and
(c)  until the plan of management has been amended as required by paragraph (b)—
(i)  the use of the land must not be varied, except to the extent necessary to further the objects of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or the Fisheries Management Act 1994, as the case requires, or in order to give effect to the core objectives prescribed under section 36 in respect of community land categorised as a natural area, or to terminate the use, and
(ii)  no lease, licence or other estate may be granted in respect of the land.
(6)  If, after the adoption of a plan of management applying to several areas of community land, all or part of one of those areas becomes directly affected by a recovery plan or threat abatement plan—
(a)  the plan of management ceases, as from the date the declaration took effect, to apply to that area, and
(b)  a plan of management must be prepared and adopted by the council for that area, and
(c)  the plan of management so prepared and adopted must comply with subsection (4).
36C   Community land containing significant natural features
(1)  This section applies to community land that is the subject of a resolution by the council that declares that the land, being the site of—
(a)  a known natural, geological, geomorphological, scenic or other feature that is considered by the council to warrant protection or special management considerations, or
(b)  a wildlife corridor,
is land to which this section applies.
(2)  A plan of management adopted in respect of an area of community land, all or part of which is land to which this section applies, is to apply to that area only, and not to other areas of land.
(3)  A plan of management to be adopted for an area of community land, all or part of which is land to which this section applies—
(a)  must state that the land, or the relevant part, is land to which this section applies, and the reason why, and
(b)  must, in complying with section 36(3)(a), categorise the land, or the relevant part, as a natural area, and
(c)  must, in complying with section 36(3)(b), (c) and (d), identify objectives, performance targets and other matters that—
(i)  are designed to protect the area, and
(ii)  take account of the existence of the features of the site identified by the council’s resolution, and
(iii)  incorporate the core objectives prescribed under section 36 in respect of community land categorised as a natural area.
(4)  If, after the adoption of a plan of management applying to just one area of community land, all or part of that area becomes the subject of a resolution of the kind described in subsection (1)—
(a)  the plan of management is taken to be amended, as from the date the declaration took effect, to categorise the land or the relevant part as a natural area, and
(b)  the council must amend the plan of management (and in doing so, the provisions of subsection (3)(a) and (c) apply to the amendment of the plan of management in the same way as they apply to the adoption of a plan of management), and
(c)  until the plan of management has been amended as required by paragraph (b)—
(i)  the use of the land must not be varied, except to the extent necessary to protect the features of the site identified in the council’s resolution or in order to give effect to the core objectives prescribed under section 36 in respect of community land categorised as a natural area, or to terminate the use, and
(ii)  no lease, licence or other estate may be granted in respect of the land.
(5)  If, after the adoption of a plan of management applying to several areas of community land, all or part of one of those areas becomes the subject of a resolution of the kind described in subsection (1)—
(a)  the plan of management ceases, as from the date the declaration took effect, to apply to that area, and
(b)  a plan of management must be prepared and adopted by the council for that area, and
(c)  the plan of management so prepared and adopted must comply with subsection (3).
36D   Community land comprising area of cultural significance
(1)  This section applies to community land that is the subject of a resolution by the council that declares that, because of the presence on the land of any item that the council considers to be of Aboriginal, historical or cultural significance, the land is an area of cultural significance for the purposes of this Part.
(2)  A plan of management adopted in respect of an area of land, all or part of which is land to which this section applies, is to apply to that land only, and not to other areas.
(3)  A plan of management to be adopted for an area of community land, all or part of which consists of land to which this section applies—
(a)  must state that the land, or the relevant part, is an area of cultural significance, and
(b)  must, in complying with section 36(3)(a), categorise the land, or the relevant part, as an area of cultural significance, and
(c)  must, in complying with section 36(3)(b), (c) and (d), identify objectives, performance targets and other matters that—
(i)  are designed to protect the area, and
(ii)  take account of the existence of the features of the site identified by the council’s resolution, and
(iii)  incorporate the core objectives prescribed under section 36 in respect of community land categorised as an area of cultural significance, and
(d)  must—
(i)  when public notice is given of it under section 38, be sent (or a copy must be sent) by the council to the Chief Executive of the Office of Environment and Heritage, and
(ii)  incorporate any matter specified by the Chief Executive of the Office of Environment and Heritage in relation to the land, or the relevant part.
(4)  If, after the adoption of a plan of management applying to just one area of community land, all or part of that area becomes the subject of a resolution of the kind described in subsection (1)—
(a)  the plan of management is taken to be amended, as from the date the declaration took effect, to categorise the land or the relevant part as an area of cultural significance, and
(b)  the council must amend the plan of management (and in doing so, the provisions of subsection (3)(a), (c) and (d) apply to the amendment of the plan of management in the same way as they apply to the adoption of a plan of management), and
(c)  until the plan of management has been amended as required by paragraph (b)—
(i)  the use of the land must not be varied, except to the extent necessary to protect any item identified in the council’s resolution or in order to give effect to the core objectives prescribed under section 36 in respect of community land categorised as an area of cultural significance, or to terminate the use, and
(ii)  no lease, licence or other estate may be granted in respect of the land.
(5)  If, after the adoption of a plan of management applying to several areas of community land, all or part of one of those areas becomes the subject of a resolution of the kind described in subsection (1)—
(a)  the plan of management ceases, as from the date the declaration took effect, to apply to that area, and
(b)  a plan of management must be prepared and adopted by the council for that area, and
(c)  the plan of management so prepared and adopted must comply with subsection (3).
36DA   Location of places and items of Aboriginal significance may be kept confidential
(1)  This section applies to draft and adopted plans of management for areas of community land, all or part of which consist of land to which section 36D applies.
(2)  A council may resolve (at the request of any Aboriginal person traditionally associated with the land concerned or on the council’s own initiative) to keep confidential such parts of a draft or adopted plan of management to which this section applies as would disclose the nature and location of a place or an item of Aboriginal significance.
(3)  Despite any other provision of this Act (including sections 38, 39 and 43) or any other law, councillors and council employees are not to disclose that part of a draft or adopted plan of management that is the subject of a resolution of confidentiality under subsection (2), except with the consent of the council.
(4)  A draft or adopted plan of management that is the subject of a resolution of confidentiality under subsection (2) must contain a note stating that the whole of the plan is affected by the resolution or identifying the parts that are so affected.
(5)  A council proposing to prepare a draft plan of management to which this section applies must (in accordance with the regulations) consult with the appropriate Aboriginal communities regarding public access to, and use of, information concerning any places or items of Aboriginal significance on the land concerned.
36E   Core objectives for management of community land categorised as a natural area
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as a natural area are—
(a)  to conserve biodiversity and maintain ecosystem function in respect of the land, or the feature or habitat in respect of which the land is categorised as a natural area, and
(b)  to maintain the land, or that feature or habitat, in its natural state and setting, and
(c)  to provide for the restoration and regeneration of the land, and
(d)  to provide for community use of and access to the land in such a manner as will minimise and mitigate any disturbance caused by human intrusion, and
(e)  to assist in and facilitate the implementation of any provisions restricting the use and management of the land that are set out in a recovery plan or threat abatement plan prepared under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or the Fisheries Management Act 1994.
36F   Core objectives for management of community land categorised as a sportsground
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as a sportsground are—
(a)  to encourage, promote and facilitate recreational pursuits in the community involving organised and informal sporting activities and games, and
(b)  to ensure that such activities are managed having regard to any adverse impact on nearby residences.
36G   Core objectives for management of community land categorised as a park
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as a park are—
(a)  to encourage, promote and facilitate recreational, cultural, social and educational pastimes and activities, and
(b)  to provide for passive recreational activities or pastimes and for the casual playing of games, and
(c)  to improve the land in such a way as to promote and facilitate its use to achieve the other core objectives for its management.
36H   Core objectives for management of community land categorised as an area of cultural significance
(1)  The core objectives for management of community land categorised as an area of cultural significance are to retain and enhance the cultural significance of the area (namely its Aboriginal, aesthetic, archaeological, historical, technical or research or social significance) for past, present or future generations by the active use of conservation methods.
(2)  Those conservation methods may include any or all of the following methods—
(a)  the continuous protective care and maintenance of the physical material of the land or of the context and setting of the area of cultural significance,
(b)  the restoration of the land, that is, the returning of the existing physical material of the land to a known earlier state by removing accretions or by reassembling existing components without the introduction of new material,
(c)  the reconstruction of the land, that is, the returning of the land as nearly as possible to a known earlier state,
(d)  the adaptive reuse of the land, that is, the enhancement or reinforcement of the cultural significance of the land by the introduction of sympathetic alterations or additions to allow compatible uses (that is, uses that involve no changes to the cultural significance of the physical material of the area, or uses that involve changes that are substantially reversible or changes that require a minimum impact),
(e)  the preservation of the land, that is, the maintenance of the physical material of the land in its existing state and the retardation of deterioration of the land.
(3)  A reference in subsection (2) to land includes a reference to any buildings erected on the land.
36I   Core objectives for management of community land categorised as general community use
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as general community use are to promote, encourage and provide for the use of the land, and to provide facilities on the land, to meet the current and future needs of the local community and of the wider public—
(a)  in relation to public recreation and the physical, cultural, social and intellectual welfare or development of individual members of the public, and
(b)  in relation to purposes for which a lease, licence or other estate may be granted in respect of the land (other than the provision of public utilities and works associated with or ancillary to public utilities).
36J   Core objectives for management of community land categorised as bushland
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as bushland are—
(a)  to ensure the ongoing ecological viability of the land by protecting the ecological biodiversity and habitat values of the land, the flora and fauna (including invertebrates, fungi and micro-organisms) of the land and other ecological values of the land, and
(b)  to protect the aesthetic, heritage, recreational, educational and scientific values of the land, and
(c)  to promote the management of the land in a manner that protects and enhances the values and quality of the land and facilitates public enjoyment of the land, and to implement measures directed to minimising or mitigating any disturbance caused by human intrusion, and
(d)  to restore degraded bushland, and
(e)  to protect existing landforms such as natural drainage lines, watercourses and foreshores, and
(f)  to retain bushland in parcels of a size and configuration that will enable the existing plant and animal communities to survive in the long term, and
(g)  to protect bushland as a natural stabiliser of the soil surface.
36K   Core objectives for management of community land categorised as wetland
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as wetland are—
(a)  to protect the biodiversity and ecological values of wetlands, with particular reference to their hydrological environment (including water quality and water flow), and to the flora, fauna and habitat values of the wetlands, and
(b)  to restore and regenerate degraded wetlands, and
(c)  to facilitate community education in relation to wetlands, and the community use of wetlands, without compromising the ecological values of wetlands.
36L   Core objectives for management of community land categorised as an escarpment
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as an escarpment are—
(a)  to protect any important geological, geomorphological or scenic features of the escarpment, and
(b)  to facilitate safe community use and enjoyment of the escarpment.
36M   Core objectives for management of community land categorised as a watercourse
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as a watercourse are—
(a)  to manage watercourses so as to protect the biodiversity and ecological values of the instream environment, particularly in relation to water quality and water flows, and
(b)  to manage watercourses so as to protect the riparian environment, particularly in relation to riparian vegetation and habitats and bank stability, and
(c)  to restore degraded watercourses, and
(d)  to promote community education, and community access to and use of the watercourse, without compromising the other core objectives of the category.
36N   Core objectives for management of community land categorised as foreshore
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as foreshore are—
(a)  to maintain the foreshore as a transition area between the aquatic and the terrestrial environment, and to protect and enhance all functions associated with the foreshore’s role as a transition area, and
(b)  to facilitate the ecologically sustainable use of the foreshore, and to mitigate impact on the foreshore by community use.
37   Requirements of plans of management for community land that is not owned by the council
A plan of management for community land that is not owned by the council—
(a)  must identify the owner of the land, and
(b)  must state whether the land is subject to any trust, estate, interest, dedication, condition, restriction or covenant, and
(c)  must state whether the use or management of the land is subject to any condition or restriction imposed by the owner, and
(d)  must not contain any provisions inconsistent with anything required to be stated by paragraph (a), (b) or (c).
38   Public notice of draft plans of management
(1)  A council must give public notice of a draft plan of management.
(2)  The period of public exhibition of the draft plan must be not less than 28 days.
(3)  The public notice must also specify a period of not less than 42 days after the date on which the draft plan is placed on public exhibition during which submissions may be made to the council.
(4)  The council must, in accordance with its notice, publicly exhibit the draft plan together with any other matter which it considers appropriate or necessary to better enable the draft plan and its implications to be understood.
39   Notice to owner of draft plan of management
(1)  Before giving public notice of a draft plan of management in accordance with section 38, the council must forward a copy of the draft plan to the person who owns or controls the land if the land is not owned by the council.
(2)  The council must include in the draft plan any provisions that may properly be required by the person who owns or controls the land.
40   Adoption of plans of management
(1)  After considering all submissions received by it concerning the draft plan of management, the council may decide to amend the draft plan or to adopt it without amendment as the plan of management for the community land concerned.
(2)  If the council decides to amend the draft plan it must either—
(a)  publicly exhibit the amended draft plan in accordance with the provisions of this Division relating to the public exhibition of draft plans, or
(b)  if it is of the opinion that the amendments are not substantial, adopt the amended draft plan without public exhibition as the plan of management for the community land concerned.
(2A)  If a council adopts an amended plan without public exhibition of the amended draft plan, it must give public notice of that adoption, and of the terms of the amended plan of management, as soon as practicable after the adoption.
(3)  The council may not, however, proceed to adopt the plan until any public hearing required under section 40A has been held in accordance with section 40A.
40A   Public hearing in relation to proposed plans of management
(1)  The council must hold a public hearing in respect of a proposed plan of management (including a plan of management that amends another plan of management) if the proposed plan would have the effect of categorising, or altering the categorisation of, community land under section 36(4).
(2)  However, a public hearing is not required if the proposed plan would merely have the effect of altering the categorisation of the land under section 36(5).
(3)  A council must hold a further public hearing in respect of the proposed plan of management if—
(a)  the council decides to amend the proposed plan after a public hearing has been held in accordance with this section, and
(b)  the amendment of the plan would have the effect of altering the categorisation of community land under section 36(4) from the categorisation of that land in the proposed plan that was considered at the previous public hearing.
41   Amendment of plans of management
A council may amend a plan of management adopted under this Division by means only of a plan of management so adopted.
42   Revocation and cessation of plans of management
(1)  A plan of management for community land may be revoked by a plan of management adopted under this Division by the council.
(2)  A plan of management ceases to apply to land if—
(a)  the land is reclassified as operational land, or
(b)  in the case of land that is not owned by the council—the land ceases to be controlled by the council.
43   Public availability of plans of management
A plan of management must be available for public inspection at, and purchase from, the office of the council during ordinary office hours.
44   Use of community land pending adoption of plan of management
Pending the adoption of a plan of management for community land, the nature and use of the land must not be changed.
45   What dealings can a council have in community land?
(1)  A council has no power to sell, exchange or otherwise dispose of community land.
(2)  A council may grant a lease or licence of community land, but only in accordance with this Division.
(3)  A council may grant any other estate in community land to the extent permitted by this Division or under the provisions of another Act.
Note.
 The word estate has a wide meaning. See the Interpretation Act 1987, section 21(1).
(4)  This section does not prevent a council from selling, exchanging or otherwise disposing of community land for the purpose of enabling that land to become, or be added to, Crown managed land or to become, or be added to, land that is reserved or dedicated under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974.
46   Leases, licences and other estates in respect of community land—generally
(1)  A lease, licence or other estate in respect of community land—
(a)  may be granted for the provision of public utilities and works associated with or ancillary to public utilities, or
(a1)  may be granted for the purpose of providing pipes, conduits or other connections under the surface of the ground for the connection of premises adjoining the community land to a facility of the council or other public utility provider, or
(b)  may be granted, in accordance with an express authorisation in the plan of management and such provisions of the plan of management as apply to the granting of the lease, licence or other estate—
(i)  for a purpose prescribed by subsection (4), or for a purpose prescribed by any of sections 36E to 36N as a core objective of the categorisation of the land concerned, or
(ii)  for a purpose prescribed by the regulations, if the plan of management applies to several areas of community land, or
(iii)  for a short-term, casual purpose prescribed by the regulations, or
(iv)  for a residential purpose in relation to housing owned by the council, or
(v)    (Repealed)
(c)  may be granted in order to allow a filming project to be carried out, whether or not the project is in accordance with the plan of management or is consistent with the core objectives of the categorisation of the land concerned,
but may not otherwise be granted.
(2)  Despite subsection (1), a lease, licence or other estate in respect of community land may be granted for a purpose mentioned in subsection (1)(b) only if the purpose for which it is granted is consistent with the core objectives, as prescribed in this Part, of its categorisation.
(3)  A council must not grant a lease or licence for a period (including any period for which the lease or licence could be renewed by the exercise of an option) exceeding 30 years.
(4)  The following purposes are prescribed for the purposes of subsection (1)(b)(i)—
(a)  the provision of goods, services and facilities, and the carrying out of activities, appropriate to the current and future needs within the local community and of the wider public in relation to any of the following—
(i)  public recreation,
(ii)  the physical, cultural, social and intellectual welfare or development of persons,
(b)  the provision of public roads.
(5)  Purposes prescribed by subsection (4) in relation to the matters mentioned in subsection (4)(a)(ii) include, but are not limited to, maternity welfare centres, infant welfare centres, kindergartens, nurseries, child care centres, family day-care centres, surf life saving clubs, restaurants or refreshment kiosks.
(5A)  A council must grant an application under subsection (1)(c) for a lease, licence or other estate in respect of community land in order to allow a filming project to be carried out on the land unless—
(a)  the community land is land referred to in section 47AA(1), or
(b)  the plan of management for the land expressly prohibits use of the land for the purposes of filming projects, or
(c)  the council is satisfied that there are exceptional circumstances that warrant refusal of the application.
(5B)  Before refusing an application on a ground referred to in subsection (5A)(c), the council must consider whether any concerns it has could be addressed by imposing conditions on the grant.
(5C)  If the council refuses an application, it must—
(a)  inform the applicant in writing of its decision as soon as practicable after it is made, and
(b)  give the applicant reasons in writing for its decision within 3 business days after it is made.
(6)  A plan of management is void to the extent that it purports to authorise the grant of a lease, licence or other estate in contravention of this section.
46A   Means of granting leases, licences and other estates
(1)  A plan of management is to specify, in relation to the community land to which it applies, any purposes for which a lease, licence or other estate may be granted only by tender in accordance with Division 1 of Part 3.
(2)  Nothing in this section precludes a council from applying a tender process in respect of the grant of any particular lease, licence or estate.
(3)  A lease or licence for a term exceeding 5 years may be granted only by tender in accordance with Division 1 of Part 3, unless it is granted to a non-profit organisation.
47   Leases, licences and other estates in respect of community land—terms greater than 5 years
(1)  If a council proposes to grant a lease, licence or other estate in respect of community land for a period (including any period for which the lease, licence or other estate could be renewed by the exercise of an option) exceeding 5 years, it must—
(a)  give public notice of the proposal (including on the council’s website), and
(b)  exhibit notice of the proposal on the land to which the proposal relates, and
(c)  give notice of the proposal to such persons as appear to it to own or occupy the land adjoining the community land, and
(d)  give notice of the proposal to any other person, appearing to the council to be the owner or occupier of land in the vicinity of the community land, if in the opinion of the council the land the subject of the proposal is likely to form the primary focus of the person’s enjoyment of community land.
(2)  A notice of the proposal must include—
  information sufficient to identify the community land concerned
  the purpose for which the land will be used under the proposed lease, licence or other estate
  the term of the proposed lease, licence or other estate (including particulars of any options for renewal)
  the name of the person to whom it is proposed to grant the lease, licence or other estate (if known)
  a statement that submissions in writing may be made to the council concerning the proposal within a period, not less than 28 days, specified in the notice.
(3)  Any person may make a submission in writing to the council during the period specified for the purpose in the notice.
(4)  Before granting the lease, licence or other estate, the council must consider all submissions duly made to it.
(5)  The council must not grant the lease, licence or other estate except with the Minister’s consent, if—
(a)  a person makes a submission by way of objection to the proposal, or
(b)  in the case of a lease or licence, the period (including any period for which the lease or licence could be renewed by the exercise of an option) of the lease or licence exceeds 21 years.
(6)  If the council applies for the Minister’s consent, it must forward with its application—
  a copy of the plan of management for the land
  details of all objections received and a statement setting out, for each objection, the council’s decision and the reasons for its decision
  a statement setting out all the facts concerning the proposal to grant the lease, licence or other estate
  a copy of the public notice of the proposal
  a statement setting out the terms, conditions, restrictions and covenants proposed to be included in the lease, licence or other estate
  if the application relates to a lease or licence for a period (including any period for which the lease or licence could be renewed by the exercise of an option) exceeding 21 years, a statement outlining the special circumstances that justify the period of the lease or licence exceeding 21 years
  a statement setting out the manner in which and the extent to which the public interest would, in the council’s opinion, be affected by the granting of the proposed lease, licence or other estate, including the manner in which and the extent to which the needs of the area with respect to community land would, in the council’s opinion, be adversely affected by the granting of the proposed lease, licence or other estate.
(7)  On receipt of the application, the Minister must request the Director of Planning to furnish a report concerning the application within such period as the Minister specifies.
(8)  After considering the application and any report of the Director of Planning, the Minister, if satisfied that—
(a)  subsections (1), (2) and (6) have been complied with, and
(b)  such consent would not contravene section 46, and
(c)  in all the circumstances, it is desirable to grant consent,
may consent to the granting of a lease, licence or other estate in respect of the whole or part of the land to which the application relates, subject to such terms and conditions as the Minister specifies.
(8AA)  The Minister may consent to a lease or licence referred to in subsection (5)(b) only if the Minister is satisfied that there are special circumstances that justify the period of the lease or licence exceeding 21 years.
(8A)  On request by any person, the Minister must provide that person, within 14 days of that request, with a written statement of reasons for consenting to, or refusing to consent to, the granting of a lease, licence or other estate in accordance with subsection (8).
(9)  The Minister’s consent is conclusive evidence that the council has complied with subsections (1), (2) and (6).
(10)  For the purposes of this section, any provision made by a lease or licence, or by an instrument granting any other estate, in respect of community land, according to which the council—
(a)  would suffer a disadvantage or penalty if the same or a similar lease, licence or estate were not to be granted, for a further term, after the expiry of the current lease, licence or other estate, or
(b)  would enjoy an advantage or benefit if the same or a similar lease, licence or estate were to be so granted,
is taken to confer an option for renewal for a term equal to the further term.
47A   Leases, licences and other estates in respect of community land—terms of 5 years or less
(1)  This section applies to a lease, licence or other estate in respect of community land granted for a period that (including any period for which the lease, licence or other estate could be renewed by the exercise of an option) does not exceed 5 years, other than a lease, licence or other estate exempted by the regulations.
(2)  If a council proposes to grant a lease, licence or other estate to which this section applies—
(a)  the proposal must be notified and exhibited in the manner prescribed by section 47, and
(b)  the provisions of section 47(3) and (4) apply to the proposal, and
(c)  on receipt by the council of a written request from the Minister, the proposal is to be referred to the Minister, who is to determine whether or not the provisions of section 47(5)–(9) are to apply to the proposal.
(3)  If the Minister, under subsection (2)(c), determines that the provisions of section 47(5)–(9) are to apply to the proposal—
(a)  the council, the Minister and the Director of Planning are to deal with the proposal in accordance with the provisions of section 47(1)–(8), and
(b)  section 47(9) has effect with respect to the Minister’s consent.
47AA   Special provisions for leases, licences and other estates granted for filming projects
(1)  A council that proposes to grant a lease, licence or other estate in respect of community land under section 47A in order to allow a filming project to be carried out on community land—
(a)  that is critical habitat (as defined in section 36A(1)), or
(b)  that is directly affected by a recovery plan or threat abatement plan, as referred to in section 36B(2), or
(c)  that is declared to be an area of cultural significance under section 36D(1) because of the presence on the land of any item that the council considers to be of Aboriginal significance,
must, in addition to complying with section 47A, notify or advertise the proposal in the manner prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this section.
(2)  Despite section 47A(2), a council that is of the opinion that a filming project proposed to be carried out under a lease, licence or other estate granted under section 47A will have a minor impact on the environment and on public amenity may state in the notice of the proposal required by section 47A(2) that submissions in writing may be made to the council concerning the proposal within a period, not less than 7 days, specified in the notice.
(3)  Regulations may be made for or with respect to guidelines that must be taken into consideration by councils in determining whether to grant a lease, licence or other estate in respect of community land in order to allow a filming project to be carried out on the land.
47B   Lease or licence in respect of natural area
(1)  A lease, licence or other estate must not be granted, in respect of community land categorised as a natural area—
(a)  to authorise the erection or use of a building or structure that is not a building or structure of a kind prescribed by this section or the regulations, or
(b)  to authorise the erection or use of a building or structure that is not for a purpose prescribed by this section or the regulations.
(2)  A lease, licence or instrument granting any other estate is void to the extent that its provisions are inconsistent with this section.
(3)  In this section, erection of a building or structure includes rebuilding or replacement of a building or structure.
(4)  The following buildings and structures are prescribed for the purposes of subsection (1)(a)—
(a)  walkways,
(b)  pathways,
(c)  bridges,
(d)  causeways,
(e)  observation platforms,
(f)  signs.
(5)  The following purposes are prescribed for the purposes of subsection (1)(b)—
(a)  information kiosks,
(b)  refreshment kiosks (but not restaurants),
(c)  work sheds or storage sheds required in connection with the maintenance of the land,
(d)  toilets or rest rooms.
(6)  Despite subsection (1), a lease, licence or other estate may be granted, in respect of community land categorised as a natural area, to authorise the erection or use of any building or structure necessary to enable a filming project to be carried out, subject to the conditions prescribed by subsection (7) and the regulations.
(7)  It is a condition of any lease, licence or other estate referred to in subsection (6)—
(a)  that any building or structure so erected must be temporary in nature, and
(b)  that as soon as practicable after the termination of the lease, licence or other estate—
(i)  any building or structure erected must be removed, and
(ii)  any damage to the land caused by the erection or use of a building or structure must be made good, and
(iii)  the land must be restored as nearly as possible to the condition that it was in at the time the lease, licence or other estate was granted,
at the expense of the person to whom the lease, licence or other estate was granted.
47C   Sublease of community land
(1)  In addition to any restrictions created by the lease, community land that is the subject of a lease cannot be sublet for a purpose other than—
(a)  the purpose for which, as notified under section 47(2), the land was to be used under the lease, or
(b)  a purpose prescribed by the regulations.
(2)  A lease is void to the extent that its provisions are inconsistent with this section.
47D   Occupation of community land otherwise than by lease or licence
(1)  The exclusive occupation or exclusive use by any person of community land otherwise than in accordance with—
(a)  a lease, licence or estate to which section 47 or 47A applies, or
(b)  a sublease or other title directly or indirectly derived from the holder of such a lease, licence or estate,
is prohibited.
(2)  This section does not apply to—
(a)  the occupation or use of part of the site of a senior citizens’ centre or home or community care facility by a duly appointed manager of the centre, or
(b)  the occupation or use of community land by persons, and in circumstances, prescribed by the regulations.
47E   Development of community land
(1)  No power of a council under an environmental planning instrument to consent to the carrying out of development on community land may be delegated by the council, if—
(a)  the development involves the erection, rebuilding or replacement of a building (other than a building exempted by or under subsection (2) from the operation of this paragraph), or
(b)  the development involves extensions to an existing building that would occupy more than 10 per cent of its existing area, or
(c)  the development involves intensification, by more than 10 per cent, of the use of the land or any building on the land, or
(d)  the location of the development has not been specified in the plan of management applying to the land and the development is likely, in the opinion of the council, to be unduly intrusive to nearby residents.
(2)  The following buildings are exempt from the operation of subsection (1)(a)—
(a)  toilet facilities,
(b)  small refreshment kiosks,
(c)  shelters for persons from the sun and weather,
(d)  picnic facilities,
(e)  structures (other than accommodations for spectators) required for the playing of games or sports,
(f)  playground structures,
(g)  work sheds or storage sheds,
(h)  buildings of a kind prescribed by the regulations.
(3)  An existing area referred to in subsection (1)(b) does not include the area of any awning, balcony, verandah or other thing that extends beyond the main structural outline of the building.
(4)  A delegation granted before the commencement of this section, to the extent that the delegation could not have been granted if this section had been in force at the time it was granted, is void.
47F   Dedication of community land as public road
(1)  Community land may not be dedicated as a public road under section 10 of the Roads Act 1993 unless—
(a)  the road is necessary to facilitate enjoyment of the area of community land on which the road is to be constructed or of any facility on that land, and
(b)  the council has considered means of access other than public road access to facilitate that enjoyment, and
(c)  there is a plan of management applying only to the land concerned and provision of the public road is expressly authorised in the plan of management.
(2)  Subsection (1) does not apply to—
(a)  a dedication of land for the purpose of widening an existing public road, or
(b)  a dedication of land for the purpose of other roadworks of a minor character, authorised by the plan of management applying to the land, in respect of existing roads, or
(c)  a dedication of land for the purpose of a road that is the subject of an order under Division 1 of Part 5 of the Roads Act 1993.
Division 3 Miscellaneous
47G   Public hearings
(1)  In this section, public hearing means any public hearing required to be arranged under this Part.
(2)  The person presiding at a public hearing must not be—
(a)  a councillor or employee of the council holding the public hearing, or
(b)  a person who has been a councillor or employee of that council at any time during the 5 years before the date of his or her appointment.
(3)  Not later than 4 days after it has received a report from the person presiding at the public hearing as to the result of the hearing, the council must make a copy of the report available for inspection by the public at a location within the area of the council.
48   Responsibility for certain public reserves
(1)  Except as provided by section 2.22 of the Crown Land Management Act 2016, a council has the control of—
(a)  public reserves that are not under the control of or vested in any other body or persons and are not held by a person under lease from the Crown, and
(b)  public reserves that the Governor, by proclamation, places under the control of the council.
(2)  If any doubt arises as to whether any land comes within the operation of this section, or as to the boundaries of a public reserve, the Governor may, by proclamation, determine the matter.
49   Public reserves and drainage reserves dedicated on subdivision, transfer or conveyance
(1)  On the registration by the Registrar-General of a plan on which land is marked with the words “public reserve”, or of a transfer or conveyance to a council of land identified in the transfer or conveyance as being for use as a public reserve, the land is dedicated as a public reserve and vests in the council for an estate in fee simple.
(2)  If the land so dedicated is under the Real Property Act 1900, the Registrar-General, on registration of the plan or transfer, must create a folio of the Register under that Act for the estate of the council in the land and record in the folio, by reference to this section or otherwise, that the land is dedicated as a public reserve.
(3)  On the registration by the Registrar-General of a plan on which land is marked with the words “drainage reserve”, or of a transfer or conveyance to a council of land identified in the transfer or conveyance as being for use as a drainage reserve, the land vests in the council for an estate in fee simple and is held by the council for drainage purposes.
(4)  This section does not apply to a subdivision of land the plan of which was approved by the council before 15 June 1964.
50   Public garden and recreation space and drainage reserves provided for in subdivisions approved before 15.6.1964
(1)  This section applies to a subdivision of land the plan of which was approved by the council—
  in the case of public garden and recreation space—before 15 June 1964
  in the case of drainage reserves—after 24 November 1922 and before 15 June 1964.
Note.
 15 June 1964 is the date of commencement of the Local Government and Conveyancing (Amendment) Act 1964. 24 November 1922 is the date of commencement of the Local Government (Validation and Amendment) Act 1922.
(2)  If a subdivision made provision for public garden and recreation space, the council may direct—
(a)  that the space be conveyed or transferred to the council, or
(b)  because the space is adjacent to land reserved or dedicated for the purpose of public recreation under the Crown Land Management Act 2016 or to a public park that is not vested in the council, that the space be surrendered to the Crown.
Public garden and recreation space surrendered to the Crown is taken to be Crown land.
(3)  If a subdivision made provision for a drainage reserve, the council may direct that the reserve be conveyed or transferred to the council.
(4)  Instead of directing that land be conveyed or transferred to it, the council may publish a notice in the Gazette notifying that the land is vested in it.
(5)  On publication of the notice, the land vests in the council for an estate in fee simple and is taken—
  in the case of public garden and recreation space—to be dedicated as a public reserve
  in the case of drainage reserves—to be held by the council for drainage purposes.
(6)  When creating a folio of the Register under the Real Property Act 1900 for public garden and recreation space vested in the council under this section, the Registrar-General must record in the folio, by reference to this section or otherwise, that the land is dedicated as a public reserve.
51   Use of land held for drainage purposes
Land that is held by council for drainage purposes may be used for any other purpose that is not inconsistent with its use for drainage purposes, subject to the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 and any environmental planning instrument applying to the land.
52   Effect of sec 28 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979
This Part is not a regulatory instrument for the purposes of section 28 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979.
Note.
 Section 28 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 empowers an environmental planning instrument to provide that, to the extent necessary to enable development to be carried out in accordance with such an instrument or with a consent granted under that Act, a regulatory instrument (an Act, rule, regulation, by-law, ordinance, proclamation, agreement, covenant or instrument by or under whatever authority made) is not to apply to the development. Section 52 prevents section 28 of that Act from removing any of the controls imposed by this Part.
53   The council’s land register
(1)  A council is required to keep a register of all land vested in it or under its control.
(2)  The register must include the following—
  the name (if any) by which the land is known
  the address or location of the land
  the reference to title of the land
  the name of the owner of the land
  whether or not the land is Crown land
  the classification under this Part of the land
  whether or not there is a plan of management for the land
  the zoning (if any) of the land under an environmental planning instrument
  particulars of any agreement (including any lease or licence) entered into by the council with respect to the land.
54   Certificate as to classification of land
(1)  A person may apply to the council for a certificate as to the classification of any public land.
(2)  The application must be in the approved form and be accompanied by the approved fee.
(3)  The council is to issue a certificate to the applicant stating the classification of the public land as at the date of the certificate.
(4)  The production of the certificate is taken for all purposes to be conclusive proof of the matter certified.
54A   Community land to be described in common terms
Any public notice given by a council with respect to a parcel of community land must describe the land by reference to its common description (such as its address, or the name by which it is generally known) whether or not the notice also describes the land by reference to a more formal legal description.
54B   Transfer of certain institutional private trust land
(1)  In this section—
assets means any legal or equitable estate or interest (whether present or future and whether vested or contingent) in real or personal property of any description (including money), and includes securities, choses in action and documents.
institution has the same meaning as in Division 6 of Part 2 of Schedule 7 to the Crown Land Management Act 2016.
liabilities means any liabilities, debts or obligations (whether present or future and whether vested or contingent).
private trust land means any land reserved, dedicated or granted under any Act or instrument, or otherwise held, for the purposes of an institution, but does not include any such land if it is Crown land (or land otherwise vested in the Crown) or was Crown land (or land otherwise vested in the Crown) before being reserved, dedicated, granted or held for the purposes of an institution.
rights means any rights, powers, privileges or immunities (whether present or future and whether vested or contingent).
trustees of private trust land means the majority of the trustees for the time being of that land.
(2)  A council and the trustees of private trust land may enter into an agreement for the land to be transferred to the council.
(3)  Any such agreement may contain provisions relating to the purposes for which the land is to be used after it is transferred.
(4)  The trustees may enter into any such agreement to transfer private trust land, and the agreement has effect, despite the terms and provisions of any Act, deed, reservation, dedication, grant or other instrument relating to the land.
(5)  Land that is transferred to a council under such an agreement is—
(a)  freed and discharged from any trusts, estates, interests, reservations dedications, conditions, restrictions and provisions affecting the land, and
(b)  to be used and managed by the council as community land.
(6)  Subsection (5)(a) is subject to any agreement entered into by the council under this section for the transfer of the land.
(7)  In preparing a draft plan of management in relation to any land transferred to it under this section, the council must, in addition to the other requirements under Division 2—
(a)  advise the Minister that it is preparing the draft plan, and
(b)  take into account the purposes for which the land was reserved, dedicated, granted or held as an institution, and
(c)  comply as far as practicable with the agreement entered into between the trustees of the private trust land concerned and the council, and
(d)  before giving public notice of the draft plan in accordance with section 38, consult with such persons or bodies as the council considers appropriate or as the Minister directs.
(8)  On the transfer of any private trust land to a council under this section, the following provisions have effect—
(a)  any assets, rights or liabilities in relation to the land, or in relation to the trustees of the land in their capacity as trustees, become the assets, rights or liabilities of the council,
(b)  all proceedings relating to those assets, rights and liabilities that were commenced by or against the trustees before the transfer are taken to be proceedings pending by or against the council,
(c)  any act, matter or thing done or omitted to be done in relation to those assets, rights and liabilities by, to or in respect of the trustees before the transfer is (to the extent to which that act, matter or thing has any force or effect) taken to have been done or omitted to be done by, to or in respect of the council.
 
How do councils manage public land?
Land owned or controlled by councils consists of
  Public roads
  Land to which the Crown Land Management Act 2016
  Commons
  All other land
(It is this other land that this Act defines to be public land.)
What regulates this land?
This land may be classified by a local environmental plan or council resolution as
  PUBLIC ROADS—Roads Act 1993
  CROWN LAND—Crown Land Management Act 2016
Community
Operational
MANAGEMENT PLAN REQUIRED?
YES
NO
IS USE RESTRICTED?
  Use must not change until management plan adopted
  Use and management must be in accordance with—
  plan of management adopted by council
  provisions of any relevant law
NO
IS DISPOSAL RESTRICTED?
  Sale prohibited
  No lease or licence over 21 years
  Leases or licences over 5 years only with Minister’s consent if anyone objects to the lease or licence
NO
RECLASSIFICATION?
By local environmental plan or, in some circumstances, by council resolution
By council resolution
Part 2A Environmental upgrade agreements
54C   Definitions
In this Part—
environmental upgrade agreement—see section 54D.
environmental upgrade charge—see section 54G.
environmental upgrade works—see section 54E.
owners corporation for a strata scheme means the owners corporation for the strata scheme constituted under the Strata Schemes Management Act 2015.
strata building means a building containing a lot or part of a lot that is the subject of a strata scheme.
strata scheme means a strata scheme under the Strata Schemes Development Act 2015.
54D   Environmental upgrade agreement
(1)  A council may enter into an environmental upgrade agreement with a building owner and a finance provider in relation to a building.
(2)  An environmental upgrade agreement is an agreement under which—
(a)  a building owner agrees to carry out environmental upgrade works in respect of a building, and
(b)  a finance provider agrees to advance funds to the building owner to finance those environmental upgrade works, and
(c)  the council agrees to levy a charge on the relevant land for the purpose of repaying the advance to the finance provider.
(3)  A building owner is a person who is the owner of the land on which the building is erected.
(4)  For a building erected on land that is the subject of a strata scheme, the owners corporation for the strata scheme is taken to be the building owner.
(5)  The function of entering into an environmental upgrade agreement can be delegated by a council only to the general manager of the council. The delegation must specify the building or buildings to which the delegation relates.
(6)  Other persons may also be party to an environmental upgrade agreement.
54E   What are environmental upgrade works?
(1)  For the purposes of this Part, environmental upgrade works are works to improve the energy, water or environmental efficiency or sustainability of the building to which the agreement relates.
(2)  Environmental upgrade works include any works declared by the regulations to be environmental upgrade works.
(3)  Environmental upgrade works do not include any works declared by the regulations to be excluded works.
(4)  More than one environmental upgrade agreement may be entered into in relation to the same environmental upgrade works.
54F   Buildings that can be subject of environmental upgrade agreement
(1)  An environmental upgrade agreement must relate to an existing building (that is, a building that is complete and ready for lawful use and occupation at the time the agreement is entered into).
(2)  The building must be a non-residential building or a strata building that is the subject of a multi-residence scheme.
(3)  A non-residential building is a building used wholly or predominantly for commercial, industrial or other non-residential purposes.
(4)  A multi-residence scheme is a strata scheme comprising more than 20 lots (disregarding utility lots and lots used for parking).
(5)  The building must be located in the council’s area at the time that the agreement is entered into.
54G   Contents of environmental upgrade agreement
(1)  An environmental upgrade agreement must specify the following—
(a)  the environmental upgrade works to be carried out by or on behalf of the building owner under the agreement,
(b)  the amount of the advance or advances to be made by the finance provider under the agreement,
(c)  the arrangements for repayment of the advance or advances (the agreed repayment arrangements).
(2)  The agreed repayment arrangements may require the council to levy a charge (an environmental upgrade charge) for the purpose of discharging the building owner’s obligation to repay the advance or advances made by the finance provider under the agreement (including any interest or other charges payable under the agreement).
(3)  The agreed repayment arrangements must specify—
(a)  the amount of the environmental upgrade charge or charges to be levied by the council under the agreement (or a method for calculating the amount of the charge or charges), and
(b)  the date or dates on which the charge or charges are to be levied by the council, and
(c)  any adjustments to be made to the charge or charges in the event of late payment.
(4)  Money paid to a council in respect of an environmental upgrade charge is to be paid by the council to the finance provider in accordance with the environmental upgrade agreement.
(5)  An environmental upgrade agreement may permit the early repayment of any amount payable under the agreement.
(6)  An environmental upgrade agreement must be in writing.
(7)  An environmental upgrade agreement may include any other provisions agreed to by the parties.
(8)  An environmental upgrade agreement may be varied or terminated by further agreement between the council, the finance provider and the building owner for the time being.
54H   Council fees under agreement
(1)  An environmental upgrade agreement may authorise a council to deduct from any money paid in respect of an environmental upgrade charge, and retain, as a council fee—
(a)  a service fee, being a fee to cover any costs incurred by the council in entering into, or administering, the agreement, and
(b)  a late payment fee, being the amount, or a part of the amount, charged under the agreement for late payment of an environmental upgrade charge.
(2)  The environmental upgrade agreement must specify the amount of, or a method for calculating, any such council fee.
(3)  Part 10 of Chapter 15 does not apply in respect of a council fee charged under an environmental upgrade agreement.
(4)  However, section 610D applies to the service fee component of the council fee.
54I   Power to levy environmental upgrade charge
(1)  A council may levy an environmental upgrade charge in accordance with an environmental upgrade agreement.
(2)  An environmental upgrade charge may be levied only on the land on which the building to which the environmental upgrade agreement relates is erected or, in the case of a strata building, the land that is the subject of the relevant strata scheme.
54J   Application of other charge provisions to environmental upgrade charge
(1)  The relevant provisions apply in respect of an environmental upgrade charge in the same way as they apply in respect of a charge levied under Chapter 15.
(2)  The relevant provisions are the following provisions—
(a)  Chapter 15—sections 543, 544, 545, 546(1), (3), (4) and (5), 550, 561, 569, 571, 573, 602 and 603,
(b)  Chapter 17—sections 695, 696 and 712 and Division 5 of Part 2.
(3)  The relevant provisions apply with the following modifications—
(a)  in section 545, a reference to a provision of Part 4 of Chapter 15 is taken to include a reference to a provision of this Part,
(b)  in section 550, a reference to a rate or charge levied under this Act is taken to include a reference to any amount charged under an environmental upgrade agreement for late payment of an environmental upgrade charge.
(4)  The regulations may further apply, disapply or modify the operation of any provision of this Act that relates to charges levied by a council in respect of an environmental upgrade charge.
54K   Special provisions relating to strata buildings
(1)  An environmental upgrade charge that is levied in respect of land that is the subject of a strata scheme is payable by the owners corporation for that strata scheme.
(2)  This section has effect despite section 561, as applied by this Part.
(3)  An owners corporation may determine whether environmental upgrade charges are to be paid from its sinking fund or its administrative fund.
(4)  An owners corporation for a strata scheme must, on the request of an owner of a lot that forms part of the strata scheme, provide to the owner a copy of any environmental upgrade agreement that relates to premises the subject of the strata scheme.
(5)  The regulations may disapply or modify the operation of any provision of the Strata Schemes Management Act 2015 in relation to environmental upgrade charges.
54L   Payment of environmental upgrade charge
(1)  An environmental upgrade charge is to be paid within 28 days after notice of the charge is served on the person liable to pay it.
(2)  When an environmental upgrade charge is paid to a council, the council may deduct from the payment, and retain, any amount that the council is authorised to deduct and retain as a council fee under the agreement.
(3)  Money paid to a council in respect of an environmental upgrade charge, other than any council fee retained by the council, may be held, pending its payment to the finance provider to which it is to be paid, in the council’s trust fund in trust for the finance provider.
(4)  A separate account is to be established in the council’s trust fund for money paid in respect of environmental upgrade charges.
(5)  Money paid to a council in respect of an environmental upgrade charge does not form part of the council’s general income under Part 2 of Chapter 15.
54M   Liability of council to recover charge
(1)  A council must use its best endeavours to recover an environmental upgrade charge in accordance with any requirements imposed on it by an environmental upgrade agreement.
(2)  However, a council is not liable for any failure by a person to pay an environmental upgrade charge or part of an environmental upgrade charge.
(3)  Accordingly, any such failure does not make the council liable to pay the outstanding amount to the finance provider.
54N   Recovery of contributions from lessees
(1)  A provision of a lease may require a lessee to pay to the lessor a contribution towards an environmental upgrade charge payable under an environmental upgrade agreement that relates to premises that are the subject of the lease.
(2)  The amount recoverable by the lessor as a contribution must not exceed a reasonable estimate of the cost savings to be made by the lessee, as a consequence of the environmental upgrade works provided for by the environmental upgrade agreement, during the period to which the contribution relates.
(3)  An environmental upgrade agreement may make provision for the recovery of contributions by a lessor (including by providing for the methodology by which the cost savings to be made by a lessee are to be estimated), in which case a contribution is recoverable only in accordance with that agreement.
(4)  The methodology may permit both savings made directly by the lessee and a proportion of savings made by all occupants of the relevant building to be counted towards the cost savings made by the lessee.
(5)  The parties to a lease may agree that subsections (2)–(4) do not apply in respect of the lease. In such a case, the lease may make alternative provision for the payment by the lessee of a contribution towards an environmental upgrade charge payable under an environmental upgrade agreement.
(6)  A lessor is not entitled to recover a contribution from a lessee towards the payment of an environmental upgrade charge unless the lessor provides to the lessee, on request by the lessee, a copy of the environmental upgrade agreement to which the contribution relates.
(7)  This section applies despite section 23 of the Retail Leases Act 1994 and section 40 of the Residential Tenancies Act 2010.
(8)  To avoid doubt, a contribution referred to in this section is an outgoing for the purposes of the Retail Leases Act 1994.
Note.
 See, in particular, section 27 of the Retail Leases Act 1994.
(9)  The regulations may make further provision for or with respect to the making of contributions towards environmental upgrade charges by lessees.
(10)  In particular, the regulations may disapply or modify the operation of any provision of the Retail Leases Act 1994 or the Residential Tenancies Act 2010 in relation to any such contribution.
(11)  In this section—
lease means an agreement under which a person grants to another person for value a right of occupation of premises.
54O   Agreements to be made on a voluntary basis
(1)  Entry into an environmental upgrade agreement is voluntary.
(2)  A council must not require a person to enter into an environmental upgrade agreement, whether as a condition of a development consent or a requirement of an order under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 or by any other means.
(3)  This section does not prevent a planning agreement under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 making provision for entry into an environmental upgrade agreement.
54P   Reporting requirements
(1)  A council must include particulars of any environmental upgrade agreement entered into by the council in its annual report, in accordance with any requirements imposed under section 406.
(2)  The Departmental Chief Executive is to consult with the Chief Executive of the Office of Environment and Heritage regarding the requirements that are to apply under that section in respect of environmental upgrade agreements.
(3)  A council is authorised to disclose information about any environmental upgrade agreement to which it is a party to the Chief Executive of the Office of Environment and Heritage.
(4)  A council is required to disclose any information about an environmental upgrade agreement to which it is a party that is requested by the Chief Executive of the Office of Environment and Heritage.
54Q   Guidelines
(1)  The Minister for Climate Change and the Environment may, with the concurrence of the Minister administering this Act, from time to time prepare, adopt or vary guidelines relating to environmental upgrade agreements and the functions of councils under this Part.
(2)  In particular, the guidelines may specify provisions that may be included in an environmental upgrade agreement with respect to—
(a)  the making of contributions by lessees towards environmental upgrade charges payable under an agreement (including by providing for the methodology by which the cost savings to be made by a lessee as a consequence of environmental upgrade works are to be estimated), and
(b)  progress or implementation reports to be made by a building owner under an environmental upgrade agreement.
(3)  The methodology may permit both savings made directly by the lessee and a proportion of savings made by all occupants of the relevant building to be counted towards the cost savings made by the lessee.
(4)  A council must take the guidelines into consideration before exercising any of its functions under this Part.
(5)  The regulations may adopt the guidelines, or any part of the guidelines, as mandatory requirements.
(6)  A council must comply with any mandatory requirements of the guidelines in exercising its functions under this Part.
(7)  Guidelines made under this section are to be published in the Gazette.
54R   Changes to council area
The functions of a council under an environmental upgrade agreement may be exercised by any council to which the assets, rights and liabilities of the council with respect to the agreement are transferred by proclamation referred to in section 213.
Part 3 Restraints and qualifications that apply to service functions
Division 1 Tendering
55   Requirements for tendering
(1)  A council must invite tenders before entering into any of the following contracts—
(a)  a contract to carry out work that, by or under any Act, is directed or authorised to be carried out by the council,
(b)  a contract to carry out work that, under some other contract, the council has undertaken to carry out for some other person or body,
(c)  a contract to perform a service or to provide facilities that, by or under any Act, is directed or authorised to be performed or provided by the council,
(d)  a contract to perform a service or to provide facilities that, under some other contract, the council has undertaken to perform or provide for some other body,
(e)  a contract for the provision of goods or materials to the council (whether by sale, lease or otherwise),
(f)  a contract for the provision of services to the council (other than a contract for the provision of banking, borrowing or investment services),
(g)  a contract for the disposal of property of the council,
(h)  a contract requiring the payment of instalments by or to the council over a period of 2 or more years,
(i)  any other contract, or any contract of a class, prescribed by the regulations.
(2)  Tenders are to be invited, and invitations to tender are to be made, by public notice and in accordance with any provisions prescribed by the regulations.
(2A)  Nothing in this section prevents a council from tendering for any work, service or facility for which it has invited tenders.
(3)  This section does not apply to the following contracts—
(a)  subject to the regulations, a contract for the purchase of goods, materials or services specified by a person prescribed by the regulations made with another person so specified, during a period so specified and, if a rate is so specified, at a rate not exceeding the rate so specified,
(b)  a contract entered into by a council with the Crown (whether in right of the Commonwealth, New South Wales or any other State or a Territory), a Minister of the Crown or a statutory body representing the Crown,
(c)  a contract entered into by a council with another council,
(d)  a contract for the purchase or sale by a council of land,
(e)  a contract for the leasing or licensing of land by the council, other than the leasing or licensing of community land for a term exceeding 5 years to a body that is not a non-profit organisation (see section 46A),
(f)  a contract for purchase or sale by a council at public auction,
(g)  a contract for the purchase of goods, materials or services specified by the NSW Procurement Board or the Department of Administrative Services of the Commonwealth, made with a person so specified, during a period so specified and, if a rate is so specified, at a rate not exceeding the rate so specified,
(h)  a contract for the employment of a person as an employee of the council,
(i)  a contract where, because of extenuating circumstances, remoteness of locality or the unavailability of competitive or reliable tenderers, a council decides by resolution (which states the reasons for the decision) that a satisfactory result would not be achieved by inviting tenders,
(j)  contract for which, because of provisions made by or under another Act, a council is exempt from the requirement to invite a tender,
(k)  a contract made in a case of emergency,
(l)  a contract to enter into a public-private partnership,
(m)  if a council has entered into a public-private partnership—a contract entered into by the council for the purposes of carrying out a project under the public-private partnership (but only to the extent that the contract is part of the project that has been assessed or reviewed under Part 6 of Chapter 12),
(n)  a contract involving an estimated expenditure or receipt of an amount of—
(i)  less than $250,000 or another amount as may be prescribed by the regulations, or
(ii)  less than $150,000 or another amount as may be prescribed by the regulations for a contract involving the provision of services where those services are, at the time of entering the contract, being provided by employees of the council,
(o)  a contract that is an environmental upgrade agreement (within the meaning of Part 2A),
(p)  a contract or arrangement between a council and the Electoral Commissioner for the Electoral Commissioner to administer the council’s elections, council polls and constitutional referendums,
(q)  a contract made with a person or body approved as a disability employment organisation under the Public Works and Procurement Act 1912 for the purchase of goods or services in relation to which the person or body is so approved.
Note.
 Despite the person or body being approved under the Public Works and Procurement Act 1912, that Act does not otherwise apply to the procurement of goods and services by or for a council.
(4)  A council that invites tenders from selected persons only is taken to comply with the requirements of this section if those persons are selected—
(a)  from persons who have responded to a public advertisement for expressions of interest in the particular contract for which tenders are being invited, or
(b)  from persons who have responded to a public advertisement for recognition as recognised contractors with respect to contracts of the same kind as that for which tenders are being invited.
(5)–(7)    (Repealed)
55A   Extended operation of section 55 to council-related entities
(1)  A council must comply with the requirements of section 55 (including any regulations made under that section) even though the contract to which that section applies involves something being done to or by an entity that the council has formed or participated in forming.
(2)  However, if the entity concerned is formed under a public-private partnership, subsection (1) has effect only to the extent that the contract is not part of a project that has been assessed or reviewed in accordance with Part 6 of Chapter 12.
(3)  In this section—
entity means any partnership, trust, corporation, joint venture, syndicate or other body (whether or not incorporated), but does not include any such entity that is of a class prescribed by the regulations as not being within this definition.
Division 2 Water supply, sewerage and stormwater drainage works and facilities
56   Application of Division
(1)  The provisions of this Division relating to water supply and sewerage (but not stormwater drainage) do not apply to—
(a)  land within the area of operations of the Sydney Water Board under the Sydney Water Act 1994, or
(b)  land within the area of operations of the Hunter Water Board under the Hunter Water Act 1991.
(2)  The provisions of this Division (sections 57, 58 and 59 excepted) relating to water supply and sewerage (but not stormwater drainage) do not apply to land within the area of operations of a water supply authority constituted under the Water Management Act 2000.
57   Construction of works
(1)  The Minister for Primary Industries may, on the application of one or more councils, construct works of water supply, sewerage or stormwater drainage under the Public Works Act 1912.
(2)  The Minister for Primary Industries may agree to the construction of the works by the council or councils concerned on the Minister’s behalf.
58   Handing over of works
(1)  The Minister for Primary Industries may, on or before the completion of any such works, by notice given to the council or councils concerned, charge the council or councils with the care and management of the whole or part of the works (and of land on which the works are, or are being, constructed).
(2)  The notice may include provisions relating to the responsibility of the council or councils concerned for financial costs associated with the works.
(3)  The notice has effect according to its tenor from the date the notice is given to the council or councils concerned.
(4)  If more than one council is charged with the care and management of works, each council may be charged with the care and management of a specified portion of the works or the councils may be charged jointly as to the whole or a specified portion.
59   Vesting of works
(1)  The Minister for Primary Industries may, by notice published in the Gazette, do either or both of the following—
(a)  declare that land acquired for the purposes of any such works, or any part of the works, is vested in the council or councils,
(b)  declare that all right, title and interest of the Minister in any such works, or part of the works, are vested in the council or councils.
(2)  The notice has effect according to its tenor from the date the notice is published in the Gazette.
(3)  If, on the date on which a notice under this section is published in the Gazette, the council or councils concerned have not made all payments to the Minister that may finally be required to be made in respect of the cost of the acquisition of the land and of constructing the works, or part of the works (whether or not that cost has been finally determined), the council or councils concerned continue to be liable to make those payments.
59A   Ownership of water supply, sewerage and stormwater drainage works
(1)  Subject to this Division, a council is the owner of all works of water supply, sewerage and stormwater drainage installed in or on land by the council (whether or not the land is owned by the council).
(2)  A council may operate, repair, replace, maintain, remove, extend, expand, connect, disconnect, improve or do any other things that are necessary or appropriate to any of its works to ensure that, in the opinion of the council, the works are used in an efficient manner for the purposes for which the works were installed.
(3)  The provisions of this section have effect despite anything contained in section 42 of the Real Property Act 1900.
60   Ministerial approval required for certain council works
A council must not, except in accordance with the approval of the Minister for Primary Industries, do any of the following—
(a)    (Repealed)
(b)  as to water treatment works—construct or extend any such works,
(c)  as to sewage—provide for sewage from its area to be discharged, treated or supplied to any person,
(d)    (Repealed)
Note.
 Approval is required under Part 3 of Chapter 3 of the Water Management Act 2000 for the construction or use by a council of water supply works or flood works within the meaning of that Act.
61   Ministerial directions concerning certain works
(1)  The Minister for Primary Industries or a person authorised by the Minister may direct a council to take such measures as are specified in the direction to ensure the proper safety, maintenance and working of any of the following works—
(a)    (Repealed)
(b)  water treatment works,
(c)  sewage treatment works.
Note.
 Under section 19 of the Dams Safety Act 2015, Dams Safety NSW may direct a council (as the owner of a declared dam within the meaning of that Act) to take measures to ensure the safety and proper maintenance of the dam.
(2)  The council must comply with the direction.
62   Ministerial powers during emergencies
(1)  The Minister for Primary Industries or a person authorised by the Minister may direct a council to take such measures with respect to any works to which this Division applies as are specified in the direction if the Minister or person is of the opinion that an emergency exists that constitutes a threat to public health or public safety or that is causing or is likely to cause damage to property.
(2)  A direction may not be given unless the Minister for Primary Industries has obtained the concurrence of the Minister for Health.
(3)  The council must comply with the direction.
(4)  A direction under this section may not be given to a council in respect of a dam.
Note.
 Under section 21(5) of the Dams Safety Act 2015, Dams Safety NSW may direct a council (as the owner of a declared dam within the meaning of that Act) to take measures with respect to the dam during the period that an emergency order under that section is in force.
63   Effect of failure to comply with directions
(1)  If a council does not comply with a direction under section 61 or 62 within a reasonable time after notice requiring compliance with the direction is given to it by the Minister for Primary Industries or the person authorised by the Minister, the Minister may do all such things as may be necessary to give effect to the direction.
(2)  The Minister may recover any cost incurred from the council as a debt.
64   Construction of works for developers
Division 5 of Part 2 of Chapter 6 of the Water Management Act 2000 applies to a council exercising functions under this Division in the same way as it applies to a water supply authority exercising functions under that Act.
65   Powers of Minister for Primary Industries—entry on to land and other powers
Part 2 of Chapter 8 applies, in relation to works of water supply and sewerage to which this Division applies, to the Minister for Primary Industries and a person authorised by the Minister in the same way as it applies to a council and a council employee (or other person) authorised by the council.
66   Appointment of administrator
(1)  The Minister for Primary Industries (the appointing Minister) may, with the concurrence of the Minister for Local Government, by order published in the Gazette, appoint an administrator to exercise all the functions under this Division, or specified functions under this Act, of a council.
(1A)  If more than one administrator is appointed, each administrator has the functions of the council specified in the instrument of appointment.
(2)  Such an order may not be made until after a public inquiry concerning the exercise by the council of the relevant functions has been held.
(3)  The appointment of one or more persons as a commissioner or commissioners to hold the public inquiry may, despite Part 8 of Chapter 13, be made by the Minister for Primary Industries with the concurrence of the Minister for Local Government.
(4)  An administrator is to be paid a salary determined by the appointing Minister, with the concurrence of the Minister for Local Government, from the council’s funds.
(5)  An administrator has, during the administrator’s term of office and to the exclusion of the council, the functions the administrator was appointed to exercise.
(5A)  If more than one administrator is appointed for a council, the appointing Minister may give directions for the purpose of resolving any issues that arise as a result of there being more than one administrator.
(6)  The regulations may make provision for or with respect to—
  the appointment and term of office of an administrator
  an administrator’s accommodation, and the accommodation of persons assisting the administrator, at the offices of the council
  the assistance to be rendered to an administrator by the council’s employees.
Division 3 Private works
67   Private works
(1)  A council may, by agreement with the owner or occupier of any private land, carry out on the land any kind of work that may lawfully be carried out on the land.
Note.
 Examples of the kind of work that a council might carry out under this section include—
  paving and roadmaking
  kerbing and guttering
  fencing and ditching
  tree planting and tree maintenance
  demolition and excavation
  land clearing and tree felling
  water, sewerage and drainage connections
  gas and electricity connections.
(2)  A council must not carry out work under this section unless—
(a)  it proposes to charge an approved fee for carrying out the work as determined by the council in accordance with Division 2 of Part 10 of Chapter 15, or
(b)  if it proposes to charge an amount less than the approved fee, the decision to carry out the work is made, and the proposed fee to be charged is determined, by resolution of the council at an open meeting before the work is carried out.
(3)  A council must include details or a summary of any resolutions made under this section and of work carried out under subsection (2)(b) in its next annual report.
(4)  A report of work to which subsection (2)(b) applies must be given to the next meeting of the council after the work is carried out specifying—
  the person for whom the work was carried out
  the nature of the work
  the type and quantity of materials used
  the charge made for those materials
  the total of the number of hours taken by each person who carried out the work
  the total amount charged for carrying out the work (including the charge made for materials)
  the reason for carrying out the work.
(5)  This section does not apply to work carried out by a council, or by two or more councils jointly, for another council or for a public authority.
(6)  This section does not apply to any graffiti removal work carried out by a council in accordance with Part 4 of the Graffiti Control Act 2008.
Division 4
67A–67C  (Repealed)
Chapter 7 What are the regulatory functions of councils?
Part 1 Approvals
Division 1 What activities require approval?
68   What activities, generally, require the approval of the council?
(1)  A person may carry out an activity specified in the following Table only with the prior approval of the council, except in so far as this Act, the regulations or a local policy adopted under Part 3 allows the activity to be carried out without that approval.
(2)  This section does not apply to the carrying out of an activity specified in Part B of the following Table—
(a)  on land within the area of operations of the Sydney Water Board under the Sydney Water Act 1994, or
(b)  on land within the area of operations of the Hunter Water Board under the Hunter Water Act 1991.
(3)  This section does not apply to the carrying out of an activity specified in item 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 of Part B of the following Table on land within the area of operations of a water supply authority constituted under the Water Management Act 2000.
Note.
 A person who fails to obtain an approval or who carries out an activity otherwise than in accordance with an approval is guilty of an offence—see secs 626 and 627.
Table
Approvals
Part A   Structures or places of public entertainment
1   
Install a manufactured home, moveable dwelling or associated structure on land
2, 3   (Repealed)
Part B   Water supply, sewerage and stormwater drainage work
1   
Carry out water supply work
2   
Draw water from a council water supply or a standpipe or sell water so drawn
3   
Install, alter, disconnect or remove a meter connected to a service pipe
4   
Carry out sewerage work
5   
Carry out stormwater drainage work
6   
Connect a private drain or sewer with a public drain or sewer under the control of a council or with a drain or sewer which connects with such a public drain or sewer
Part C   Management of waste
1   
For fee or reward, transport waste over or under a public place
2   
Place waste in a public place
3   
Place a waste storage container in a public place
4   
Dispose of waste into a sewer of the council
5   
Install, construct or alter a waste treatment device or a human waste storage facility or a drain connected to any such device or facility
6   
Operate a system of sewage management (within the meaning of section 68A)
Part D   Community land
1   
Engage in a trade or business
2   
Direct or procure a theatrical, musical or other entertainment for the public
3   
Construct a temporary enclosure for the purpose of entertainment
4   
For fee or reward, play a musical instrument or sing
5   
Set up, operate or use a loudspeaker or sound amplifying device
6   
Deliver a public address or hold a religious service or public meeting
Part E   Public roads
1   
Swing or hoist goods across or over any part of a public road by means of a lift, hoist or tackle projecting over the footway
2   
Expose or allow to be exposed (whether for sale or otherwise) any article in or on or so as to overhang any part of the road or outside a shop window or doorway abutting the road, or hang an article beneath an awning over the road
3   (Repealed)
Part F   Other activities
1   
Operate a public car park
2   
Operate a caravan park or camping ground
3   
Operate a manufactured home estate
4   
Install a domestic oil or solid fuel heating appliance, other than a portable appliance
5   
Install or operate amusement devices
6   (Repealed)
7   
Use a standing vehicle or any article for the purpose of selling any article in a public place
8, 9   (Repealed)
10   
Carry out an activity prescribed by the regulations or an activity of a class or description prescribed by the regulations
68A   Meaning of “operate a system of sewage management”
(1)  In this Part, operate a system of sewage management means hold or process, or re-use or discharge, sewage or by-products of sewage (whether or not the sewage is generated on the premises on which the system of sewage management is operated).
(2)  Without limiting subsection (1), operate a system of sewage management includes the following—