Surveying and Spatial Information Regulation 2006
Division 4 Use of survey marks and monuments
Subdivision 1 Surveys generally
27 Forms and styles of survey marks
(1) The forms and styles of marks described in Schedule 4 are declared to be the forms and styles for permanent survey marks under the Act.Note.Schedule 4 lists permanent survey marks by Type number, using the same Type numbers as have been allocated by previous regulations. Type numbers 3 and 5 are now obsolete, and so do not appear in the Schedule.(2) The forms and styles of marks described in Schedules 2, 3 and 4 (boundary marks, reference marks and permanent survey marks) are declared to be the forms and styles for survey marks under the Act.(3) Survey marks must be placed and used in accordance with any requirements specified in Schedules 2, 3 and 4.(4) When a reference mark is required to be placed for the purposes of a survey, the form and style of reference mark to be used is to be chosen in the order of preference in which they are listed in Schedule 3.
28 Marking of urban surveys
(1) An urban survey of land that abuts a road must have reference marks:(a) at each extremity of the land surveyed, and(b) at intervals of not more than 100 metres along so much of the road frontage as will have intervening side boundaries at intervals of 100 metres or less.(2) An urban survey of land that does not abut a road must have at least 2 reference marks at suitable locations in relation to the land surveyed.(3) Subclause (1) does not require the placement of a reference mark at any extremity of the land if some other reference mark is already placed within 10 metres of that extremity and that reference mark is referenced to that extremity on the survey plan.
29 Marking of rural surveys
(1) In a rural survey, a surveyor must mark definitely and durably, by means of boundary marks, all lines that form or are to form the boundaries between parcels.(2) In addition, if a boundary is unfenced:(a) the lines that form it must also be marked with lockspits cut in the direction of the boundary from each corner or angle or, if an obstacle exists at a corner or angle, with a suitable reference mark near that corner or angle, and(b) the pegs and lockspits, or marks and lockspits, must be placed at intervals of not more than:(i) 200 metres, where one peg or mark cannot be seen from the next, or(ii) 500 metres, where one peg or mark can be seen from the next, and(c) the survey plan must show the type and position of any line mark so placed, and(d) unless environmental considerations dictate otherwise:(i) the boundary must be reasonably cleared, and(ii) any tree that has a trunk diameter greater than 100mm and is within 500mm of the boundary must be blazed or, if situated on the boundary, double blazed.(3) The surveyor must, in selected positions suitable for redefinition of the survey, connect, or place and connect, at least 2 reference marks for each parcel shown on the survey plan.(4) For a survey that affects only part of the land in a document of title, the surveyor must connect, or place and connect, at least one reference mark at each terminal of each section surveyed.(5) If a boundary (other than a road frontage) of the land exceeds 2,400 metres, a surveyor must place additional reference marks along the boundary at intervals of not more than 1,500 metres.(6) If a boundary required to be marked is a road frontage, a surveyor must place reference marks in accordance with clause 31 (5).(7) This clause does not apply to a survey referred to in clause 18.(8) In this clause, to blaze or double blaze a tree means to mark the tree with cuts in the approved manner.
30 Corners to be marked with boundary marks
(1) Except in the case of a survey referred to in clause 9, 10 (1) or 18, each corner of the land surveyed (including the corners of each parcel of land in a subdivision) must be marked with a boundary mark.(2) If it is not practicable to place a boundary mark, a reference mark must be placed and the surveyor must note on the survey plan that the corner was not marked.(3) In a rural survey, if a fence post is on a corner at which a reference mark has been placed and reference is made to that post on the survey plan, no further marking of the corner is required.
31 Roads to be marked with reference marks
(1) In the case of a survey made for the purpose of the creation, redefinition or widening of a road under any Act, a surveyor:(a) must place reference marks in the positions prescribed by this clause, and(b) must show the type and location of the reference marks in the survey plan.(2) If the survey is an urban survey, reference marks must be placed:(a) at the junction or intersection of roads:(i) if a triangle is cut off from the corner formed by the intersection of the road boundaries, so as to refer to each end of the base line of the triangle, or(ii) if the corner is rounded off, so as to refer to each tangent point, or(iii) if the corner is not cut off or rounded off, so as to refer to the point of intersection of the road boundaries, and(b) at the terminals of a road, and(c) as far as is practicable, on the same side of the road, and(d) if placed in a road that is variable in width, with connections made to both sides of the road, and(e) at each angle of the road, and at each tangent point or terminal of a series of chords of a regular curve in the road.(3) Subclause (2) (e) does not require a reference mark to be placed within 30 metres of another reference mark.(4) If a reference mark consists of a drill hole and wing, there must be 2 such marks.(5) If the survey is a rural survey, reference marks must be placed in selected positions:(a) so as to refer to the terminals of the road surveyed and to each junction or intersection of any other roads, andso that the maximum distance between any 2 successive reference marks does not exceed 1,000 metres.(b) in pairs suitable for orientation purposes throughout the whole length of the road,(6) If a road being created joins or intersects an existing road and reference marks have already been placed in the existing road:(a) the existing marks must be connected to the new reference marks placed in the road being created, and(b) the orientation of the existing reference marks must be compared with the orientation of the new reference marks, and(c) the comparison between each series of reference marks must be shown on the survey plan.
32 Procedure on finding existing corner peg and reference mark
If a corner peg and reference mark are found together, a surveyor must determine the bearing and distance between them and, if a difference from the original reference is disclosed, must decide from other evidence which of them to adopt and note details of the difference on the survey plan.
33 Procedure if monuments of original survey missing
To the extent that the relevant monuments of an original survey are missing, a surveyor must determine the boundaries and corners of the land surveyed by measurement in correct relation to:(a) adjoining or adjacent parcels of land, and(b) parcels of land on opposite sides of roads, and(c) fences, and(d) such other evidence of correct location as may be found after full investigation and inquiry.
34 Procedure if differences exist between measured and recorded lengths
(1) If a measurement discloses the length of a boundary of land to be different from that indicated in the document of title to the land, the surveyor:(a) must verify the length of the boundary, and(b) must make appropriate entries in the surveyor’s field notes, and(c) must show, in the notes and on any survey plan, the monuments or other objects or points adopted for the purpose of verifying the length of the boundary.(2) In the absence of monuments defining the land, the surveyor must indicate on the survey plan whether there is sufficient land available to permit the adoption of the measurement referred to in subclause (1) without causing any encroachment on any road or any adjoining or adjacent parcel of land.
35 Surveyor to note nature and position of survey marks etc
(1) A surveyor must indicate in the surveyor’s field notes and on the survey plan:(a) the nature and position of any survey mark or monument found by the surveyor, and(b) the MGA co-ordinates of any permanent survey mark found or placed by the surveyor, together with an estimate of the accuracy of those co-ordinates, and(c) the nature of any survey mark (other than a peg) placed by the surveyor, and(d) the essential measurements from any reference mark, permanent survey mark or monument to the nearest corner, angle or line mark.(2) If reference marks are placed or found at depths of more than 150mm below the existing surface of the ground, the surveyor must indicate the depths on the survey plan.(3) If reference marks are found, the surveyor must note their origin on the survey plan by reference to the number of the plan on which the marks first occur.(4) A monument that is important for the definition of the land must be shown in the surveyor’s field notes, and on the survey plan, with the annotation “found”, “not found”, “gone”, “disturbed” or “inaccessible”, as appropriate.(5) A monument must not be recorded as “gone” unless a thorough search for it has been made and the measurements of its probable site recorded in the surveyor’s field notes.
36 Marking of survey boundaries
(1) Surveyed boundaries must be marked with boundary marks in such a manner that the boundaries are readily and unambiguously discernible on the ground.(2) If drill holes, chisel marks or similar marks are to be placed in an ornamental wall, ornamental path or similar structure, the size of the mark placed may be reduced to avoid undue damage to the wall, path or other structure being marked, but only if the marking is durable and readily and unambiguously discernible.
37 Placement of reference marks
A reference mark must be located in such a position as to preserve the mark from disturbance.
38 Use of broad arrows
A broad arrow may be used as a survey mark in relation only to a survey referred to in section 4 or 5 of the Act.
39 Deferment of placement of survey marks
(1) If it is likely that any work to be carried out on land will disturb any survey mark to be placed on the land, a surveyor may defer the placement of the survey mark on that land.(2) In such a case, the surveyor:(a) must notify the Surveyor-General of the deferment, and(b) must deposit with the Surveyor-General the amount specified in Schedule 6 in that regard, and(c) must comply with any requirement of the Surveyor-General.(3) On completion of the work, the surveyor:(a) must place any deferred survey marks, and(b) must have their nature and position noted on the survey plan in the manner approved by the Registrar-General, and(c) must inform the Surveyor-General that the survey has been completed in accordance with any requirement referred to in subclause (2) (c).(4) If the Surveyor-General is satisfied that the survey has been satisfactorily completed, the deposit must be returned to the surveyor less an administrative charge not exceeding 15 per cent of the amount deposited.(5) A survey mark whose placement has been deferred under this clause must be placed within 28 days after completion of the relevant work.
40 Surveyor to report position of permanent survey marks
If, while carrying out a survey, a surveyor:(a) places a new permanent survey mark, orthe surveyor must notify the Surveyor-General of that fact and of the number and location of the permanent survey mark concerned.(b) becomes aware that an existing permanent survey mark has been removed, damaged, destroyed, displaced, obliterated or defaced, or is in a state of disrepair,
Subdivision 2 Surveys to be lodged with public authorities
This Division applies to any survey that is carried out for the purpose of lodging a survey plan with a public authority.
42 Surveys redefining or creating multiple parcels, roads or affecting interests
(1) A survey that redefines or creates parcels of land must be related to:(a) for a survey for 1–10 parcels—no fewer than 2 permanent survey marks, or(b) for a survey for 11–20 parcels—no fewer than 3 permanent survey marks, or(c) for a survey for more than 20 parcels—no fewer than 4 permanent survey marks, plus an additional permanent survey mark for every 20 (or part of 20) by which the number of parcels exceeds 40.(2) A survey that redefines a road frontage or that is conducted for the purposes of creating a road under any Act must be related to 2 or more permanent survey marks for each interval of 1,000 metres (for an urban survey) or 2,000 metres (for a rural survey).(3) A survey for the purposes of creating an affecting interest must have 2 or more permanent survey marks for each interval of 2,000 metres (for an urban survey) or 4,000 metres (for a rural survey).(4) No more than 2 permanent survey marks existing at the time a survey referred to in subclause (1) is carried out may be used for the purposes of the survey concerned.
43 Connection to permanent survey marks
(1) The permanent survey marks to which a survey is related must each be connected to separate corners of the land surveyed.(2) The distance between any such corner and the permanent survey mark to which it is connected must not exceed:(a) 500 metres, in the case of an urban survey, or(b) 1,000 metres, in the case of a rural survey.(3) Measurements between all permanent survey marks found or placed, and connections to the land surveyed, must be proved by closed survey and shown on the survey plan.
44 New permanent survey marks
(1) A permanent survey mark placed for the purposes of a survey:(a) must be so located as to be suitable for orientation of the survey and for redefinition of the survey, including orientation and redefinition by means of GNSS surveying techniques, and(b) if situated at a road junction, road intersection, road angle or crest of a hill, must be so located as to be:(i) visible from other permanent survey marks without obstruction, and(ii) suitable for subsequent inclusion in the State control survey, and(c) must be identified in a sketch plan prepared in accordance with approved standards.(2) If any two of the permanent survey marks referred to in clause 43 (1) have accurate AHD values, an accurate AHD value must be determined for any other permanent survey mark placed for the purposes of the survey.(3) A sketch plan referred to in subclause (1) (c):(a) must show the nature of each permanent survey mark placed by the surveyor, and(b) must show the MGA co-ordinates of each such mark, together with an estimate of the accuracy of those co-ordinates, and(c) if an accurate AHD value has been determined for that mark in accordance with subclause (2), must show that value.(4) The sketch plan must be forwarded to the Surveyor-General within 2 months of the placement of the permanent survey mark concerned.