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Contents (1900 - 40)
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Crimes Act 1900 No 40
Current version for 1 July 2019 to date (accessed 24 July 2019 at 14:37)
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Status information

Currency of version
Current version for 1 July 2019 to date (accessed 24 July 2019 at 14:37)
Legislation on this site is usually updated within 3 working days after a change to the legislation.

Provisions in force
The provisions displayed in this version of the legislation have all commenced. See Historical Notes

Does not include amendments by:
Sec 310L of this Act (sec 310L repeals Part 6B on 13.9.2019)
Modern Slavery Act 2018 No 30 (not commenced)

Responsible Minister
Attorney General, and Minister for the Prevention of Domestic Violence

Authorisation
This version of the legislation is compiled and maintained in a database of legislation by the Parliamentary Counsel's Office and published on the NSW legislation website, and is certified as the form of that legislation that is correct under section 45C of the Interpretation Act 1987.

File last modified 1 July 2019.

An Act to consolidate the Statutes relating to Criminal Law.
Part 1 Preliminary and interpretation
1   Name of Act
This Act is the Crimes Act 1900.
2   (Repealed)
3   Application of certain provisions of Act
The Parts and sections mentioned in Schedule 2, so far as their provisions can be applied, shall be in force with respect to all offences, whether at Common Law or by Statute, whensoever committed and in whatsoever Court tried.
3A, 3B   (Repealed)
4   Definitions
(1)  In this Act, unless the context or subject-matter otherwise indicates or requires:
Aircraft includes any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air.
Armed, in relation to a weapon, or instrument, or an offensive weapon, or instrument, that is a dangerous weapon, includes bearing or having the immediate physical possession of the weapon, or instrument.
Authorised officer has the same meaning as it has in the Criminal Procedure Act 1986.
Banker includes every director or manager of any banking company, whether incorporated or not, or of any branch thereof, and every person carrying on the business of a banker.
Cattle includes any horse, mare, gelding, colt, foal, filly, ass, mule, bull, cow, ox, steer, heifer, calf, ram, ewe, sheep, lamb, pig, goat, deer, alpaca, llama, vicuna, camel, or dromedary, and every hybrid or cross thereof.
Court and Judge respectively shall be equally taken to mean the Court in which or the Judge before whom the trial or proceeding is had in respect of which either word is used.
Dangerous weapon means:
(a)  a firearm, or an imitation firearm, within the meaning of the Firearms Act 1996, or
(b)  a prohibited weapon within the meaning of the Weapons Prohibition Act 1998, or
(c)  a spear gun.
Document of title to goods includes every bill of lading, India warrant, dock warrant, warehousekeeper’s certificate, warrant, or order for the delivery or transfer of any goods or valuable thing, and every bought and sold note or document used in the ordinary course of business as proof of the possession or control of goods, or purporting to authorise by indorsement or delivery, the possessor of such document to transfer or receive any goods thereby represented or therein mentioned or referred to.
Document of title to land includes every deed, certificate of title, map, paper, or parchment, written or printed, or partly written and partly printed, being or containing evidence of the title, or part of the title, to any real estate or to any interest in or out of real estate.
Dwelling-house includes:
(a)  any building or other structure intended for occupation as a dwelling and capable of being so occupied, although it has never been so occupied,
(b)  a boat or vehicle in or on which any person resides, and
(c)  any building or other structure within the same curtilage as a dwelling-house, and occupied therewith or whose use is ancillary to the occupation of the dwelling-house.
Governor means, except in respect of the exercise of the pardoning power, the Governor with the advice of the Executive Council.
Grievous bodily harm includes:
(a)  the destruction (other than in the course of a medical procedure) of the foetus of a pregnant woman, whether or not the woman suffers any other harm, and
(b)  any permanent or serious disfiguring of the person, and
(c)  any grievous bodily disease (in which case a reference to the infliction of grievous bodily harm includes a reference to causing a person to contract a grievous bodily disease).
Indictment includes any information presented or filed as provided by law for the prosecution of offences.
Intoxicating substance includes alcohol or a narcotic drug or any other substance that affects a person’s senses or understanding.
Intoxication has the same meaning it has in Part 11A.
Judge—see Court.
Loaded arms means any gun, pistol, or other arms, loaded in the barrel or chamber or magazine with gunpowder or other explosive substance, and with ball, shot, slug, or other destructive material, although the attempt to discharge may fail from want of proper priming, or from any other cause; and every gun, pistol, or other arms, unlawfully presented at any person, shall be deemed to be loaded unless the contrary is shown.
Member of the crew in relation to an aircraft means a person having functions or duties on board the aircraft.
Minor indictable offence means an indictable offence that is not a serious indictable offence.
Money includes all coined money, whether current within New South Wales or not, and all bank notes or instruments ordinarily so called, if current as such, and payable to the bearer.
Night means the period of time commencing at nine of the clock in the evening of each day and concluding at six of the clock in the morning of the next succeeding day.
Offensive weapon or instrument means:
(a)  a dangerous weapon, or
(b)  any thing that is made or adapted for offensive purposes, or
(c)  any thing that, in the circumstances, is used, intended for use or threatened to be used for offensive purposes, whether or not it is ordinarily used for offensive purposes or is capable of causing harm.
Officer, in relation to a body corporate or public company, includes a person who has been appointed, or acts, as an auditor of the body corporate or public company.
Person, Master, and Employer severally include any society, company, or corporation.
Place of Divine worship includes any building or structure ordinarily used for Divine worship.
Property includes every description of real and personal property; money, valuable securities, debts, and legacies; and all deeds and instruments relating to, or evidencing the title or right to any property, or giving a right to recover or receive any money or goods; and includes not only property originally in the possession or under the control of any person, but also any property into or for which the same may have been converted or exchanged, and everything acquired by such conversion or exchange, whether immediately or otherwise.
Property belonging to a vessel includes every portion of its cargo, and property belonging to any of the officers, crew, or passengers thereof.
Public disorder means a riot or other civil disturbance that gives rise to a serious risk to public safety, whether at a single location or resulting from a series of incidents in the same or different locations.
Railway includes a tramway, and also includes all stations, buildings, structures and equipment belonging to or associated with a railway or tramway.
Serious indictable offence means an indictable offence that is punishable by imprisonment for life or for a term of 5 years or more.
Trustee means a trustee on some express trust howsoever created, and includes the heir or personal representative of such trustee, and every other person upon whom the duty of such trust shall have devolved, and also any official manager, assignee, liquidator, or other like officer, acting under any Act relating to joint stock companies or to bankruptcy or insolvency and also an executor or administrator.
Valuable security includes every order or other security whatsoever entitling or evidencing the title of any person to any share or interest in any public stock or fund, whether of any part of the British dominions or of any Foreign State, or in any fund of any body corporate, company, or society, whether within or without the British dominions, or to any deposit in any bank; and every debenture, deed, bond, bill, note, cheque, warrant, order, or security whatsoever for money, or for payment of money, whether current in any part of the British dominions or in any Foreign State, and every document of title to land or goods, as herein defined.
Note.
 The Interpretation Act 1987 contains definitions and other provisions that affect the interpretation and application of this Act.
(2)  A dwelling-house does not cease to be a dwelling-house by reason only of being temporarily unoccupied.
(3)    (Repealed)
(4)  In this Act, except in so far as the context or subject-matter otherwise indicates or requires, a reference to an offence mentioned in a specified provision of this Act that has been amended or repealed is, or includes, a reference to an offence mentioned in the provision as in force before the amendment or repeal.
(5), (6)    (Repealed)
(7)  A reference in any offence under this Act to causing any poison, intoxicating substance or other destructive or noxious thing to be administered to or taken by any person includes a reference to causing any person to inhale, take or be exposed to the poison, intoxicating substance or thing by its release into the person’s environment.
(7A)  In any provision of this Act where a reference to a firearm means a firearm within the meaning of the Firearms Act 1996, that reference is taken to include a paintball marker within the meaning of the Paintball Act 2018 and consequently, being authorised under that Act to possess a paintball marker satisfies any requirement in this Act that possession of the paintball marker be authorised under the Firearms Act 1996.
(8)  Notes included in this Act do not form part of this Act.
4A   Recklessness
For the purposes of this Act, if an element of an offence is recklessness, that element may also be established by proof of intention or knowledge.
4B   Dishonesty
(1)  In this Act:
dishonest means dishonest according to the standards of ordinary people and known by the defendant to be dishonest according to the standards of ordinary people.
(2)  In a prosecution for an offence, dishonesty is a matter for the trier of fact.
5, 6   (Repealed)
7   “Possession” when criminal
Where by this or any other Act the unlawful receiving of any property, or its possession without lawful cause or excuse, is expressed to be an offence, every person shall be deemed to have such property in his or her possession within the meaning of such Act who:
(a)  has any such property in his or her custody, or
(b)  knowingly has any such property in the custody of another person, or
(c)  knowingly has any such property in a house, building, lodging, apartment, field, or other place, whether belonging to or occupied by himself or herself or not, and whether such property is there had or placed for his or her own use, or the use of another.
8   “Public place” etc
Where, by this or any other Act, or by any rule, regulation, ordinance or by-law, duly made under or by virtue of the provisions of any Act, any offence, conduct, or language, in a public place, or open and public place, or place of public resort, is made punishable, or a person guilty thereof is made liable to apprehension, the place shall be deemed public for the purposes of the enactment or taken to be otherwise within the meaning if the same, although a vessel or vehicle only, or a room, or field, or place, ordinarily private, was at the time used for a public purpose, or as a place of common resort, or was open to the public on the payment of money or otherwise.
9, 10   (Repealed)
Part 1A Geographical jurisdiction
10A   Application and effect of Part
(1)  This Part applies to all offences.
(2)  This Part extends, beyond the territorial limits of the State, the application of a law of the State that creates an offence if there is the nexus required by this Part between the State and the offence.
(3)  If the law that creates an offence makes provision with respect to any geographical consideration concerning the offence, that provision prevails over any inconsistent provision of this Part.
(4)  This Part is in addition to and does not derogate from any other basis on which the courts of the State may exercise criminal jurisdiction.
10B   Interpretation
(1)  For the purposes of this Part, the necessary geographical nexus is the geographical nexus required by section 10C.
(2)  For the purposes of this Part, the place in which an offence is committed is the place in which the physical elements of the offence occur.
(3)  For the purposes of this Part, the place in which an offence has an effect includes:
(a)  any place whose peace, order or good government is threatened by the offence, and
(b)  any place in which the offence would have an effect (or would cause such a threat) if the criminal activity concerned were carried out.
(4)  A reference in this Part to the State includes a reference to the coastal waters of the State in which the criminal law of the State applies (including in any part of the adjacent area of the State in which the substantive criminal law of the State applies by force of the law of the State or of the Commonwealth in accordance with the Crimes at Sea Act 1998).
10C   Extension of offences if there is a geographical nexus
(1)  If:
(a)  all elements necessary to constitute an offence against a law of the State exist (disregarding geographical considerations), and
(b)  a geographical nexus exists between the State and the offence,
the person alleged to have committed the offence is guilty of an offence against that law.
(2)  A geographical nexus exists between the State and an offence if:
(a)  the offence is committed wholly or partly in the State (whether or not the offence has any effect in the State), or
(b)  the offence is committed wholly outside the State, but the offence has an effect in the State.
10D   Provisions relating to double criminality
(1)  This Part applies to an offence that is committed partly in the State and partly in another place outside the State, irrespective of whether it is also an offence in that other place.
(2)  This Part applies to an offence that is committed wholly in a place outside the State only if:
(a)  it is also an offence in that place, or
(b)  it is not also an offence in that place, but the trier of fact is satisfied that the offence constitutes such a threat to the peace, order or good government of the State that the offence warrants criminal punishment in the State.
10E   Procedural and other provisions
(1)  The existence of the necessary geographical nexus for an offence is to be presumed and the presumption is conclusive unless rebutted under subsection (2).
(2)  If a person charged with an offence disputes the existence of the necessary geographical nexus, the court is to proceed with the trial of the offence in the usual way. If, at the conclusion of the trial, the trier of fact is satisfied on the balance of probabilities that the necessary geographical nexus does not exist, it must (subject to subsection (3)) make or return a finding to that effect and the charge is to be dismissed.
(3)  If the trier of fact would, disregarding any geographical considerations, find the person not guilty of the offence, it must make or return a finding of not guilty. The trier of fact must make or return a finding of not guilty on the grounds of mental illness in any such case if they were the only grounds on which the trier of fact would have found the person not guilty of the offence.
(4)  This section also applies to any alternative verdict available by law to the trier of fact in respect of another offence with which the person was not charged. A finding of guilt may be made or returned in any such case, unless the trier of fact is satisfied on the balance of probabilities that the necessary geographical nexus for that other offence does not exist.
(5)  The issue of whether the necessary geographical nexus exists must, if raised before the trial, be reserved for consideration at the trial.
(6)  A power or authority exercisable on reasonable suspicion or belief that an offence has been committed may be exercised in the State if the person in whom the power or authority is vested suspects on reasonable grounds or believes that the elements necessary to constitute the offence exist (whether or not the person suspects or believes or has any ground to suspect or believe that the necessary geographical nexus with the State exists).
10F   Special provisions with respect to geographical jurisdiction
(1)  This section applies for the purposes of, but without limiting, this Part.
(2)  The necessary geographical nexus exists between the State and any of the following offences if the offence is committed by a public official (within the meaning of the Independent Commission Against Corruption Act 1988) and involves public money of the State or property held by the public official for or on behalf of the State:
(a)  larceny or any offence that includes larceny,
(b)  fraud or any other offence under Part 4AA.
(3)  The necessary geographical nexus exists between the State and an offence against section 45 or 45A if the person against whom the offence is committed is a person ordinarily resident in the State.
Part 2 Offences against the Sovereign
11   Provisions of 36 Geo III, c 7, and 57 Geo III, c 6, repealed except as to offences against the person of the Sovereign
The provisions of the Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, thirty-sixth George the Third chapter seven, made perpetual by the Act of the Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland fifty-seventh George the Third chapter six, and all the provisions of the last mentioned Act in relation thereto, save such of the same respectively as relate to the compassing, imagining, inventing, devising, or intending death or destruction, or any bodily harm tending to death or destruction, maim, or wounding, imprisonment, or restraint of the person of the heirs and successors of His said Majesty King George the Third, and the expressing, uttering, or declaring of such compassings, imaginations, inventions, devices, or intentions, or any of them, shall be and the same are hereby repealed.
12   Compassing etc deposition of the Sovereign—overawing Parliament etc
Whosoever, within New South Wales or without, compasses, imagines, invents, devises, or intends to deprive or depose Our Most Gracious Lady the Queen, her heirs or successors, from the style, honour, or Royal name of the Imperial Crown of the United Kingdom, or of any other of Her Majesty’s dominions and countries, or to levy war against Her Majesty, her heirs or successors, within any part of the United Kingdom, or any other of Her Majesty’s dominions, in order, by force or constraint, to compel her or them to change her or their measures or counsels, or in order to put any force or constraint upon, or in order to intimidate or overawe, both Houses or either House of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, or the Parliament of New South Wales, or to move or stir any foreigner or stranger with force to invade the United Kingdom, or any other of Her Majesty’s dominions, or countries under the obeisance of Her Majesty, her heirs or successors, and expresses, utters, or declares such compassings, imaginations, inventions, devices, or intentions, or any of them, by publishing any printing or writing, or by open and advised speaking, or by any overt act or deed, shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
13–15   (Repealed)
16   Nothing herein to affect 25 Ed III, c 2
Nothing contained in this Part shall lessen the force of, or in any matter affect, anything enacted by the Statute passed in the twenty-fifth year of King Edward the Third “A declaration which offences shall be adjudged Treason”.
16A   (Repealed)
Part 3 Offences against the person
Division 1 Homicide
17   (Repealed)
17A   Date of death
(1)  The rule of law that it is conclusively presumed that an injury was not the cause of death of a person if the person died after the expiration of the period of a year and a day after the date on which the person received the injury is abrogated.
(2)  This section does not apply in respect of an injury received before the commencement of this section.
18   Murder and manslaughter defined
(1) 
(a)  Murder shall be taken to have been committed where the act of the accused, or thing by him or her omitted to be done, causing the death charged, was done or omitted with reckless indifference to human life, or with intent to kill or inflict grievous bodily harm upon some person, or done in an attempt to commit, or during or immediately after the commission, by the accused, or some accomplice with him or her, of a crime punishable by imprisonment for life or for 25 years.
(b)  Every other punishable homicide shall be taken to be manslaughter.
(2) 
(a)  No act or omission which was not malicious, or for which the accused had lawful cause or excuse, shall be within this section.
(b)  No punishment or forfeiture shall be incurred by any person who kills another by misfortune only.
19   (Repealed)
19A   Punishment for murder
(1)  A person who commits the crime of murder is liable to imprisonment for life.
(2)  A person sentenced to imprisonment for life for the crime of murder is to serve that sentence for the term of the person’s natural life.
(3)  Nothing in this section affects the operation of section 21 (1) of the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (which authorises the passing of a lesser sentence than imprisonment for life).
(4)  This section applies to murder committed before or after the commencement of this section.
(5)  However, this section does not apply where committal proceedings (or proceedings by way of ex officio indictment) for the murder were instituted against the convicted person before the commencement of this section. In such a case, section 19 as in force before that commencement continues to apply.
(6)  Nothing in this section affects the prerogative of mercy.
19B   Mandatory life sentences for murder of police officers
(1)  A court is to impose a sentence of imprisonment for life for the murder of a police officer if the murder was committed:
(a)  while the police officer was executing his or her duty, or
(b)  as a consequence of, or in retaliation for, actions undertaken by that or any other police officer in the execution of his or her duty,
and if the person convicted of the murder:
(c)  knew or ought reasonably to have known that the person killed was a police officer, and
(d)  intended to kill the police officer or was engaged in criminal activity that risked serious harm to police officers.
(2)  A person sentenced to imprisonment for life under this section is to serve the sentence for the term of the person’s natural life.
(3)  This section does not apply to a person convicted of murder:
(a)  if the person was under the age of 18 years at the time the murder was committed, or
(b)  if the person had a significant cognitive impairment at that time (not being a temporary self-induced impairment).
(4)  If this section requires a person to be sentenced to imprisonment for life, nothing in section 21 (or any other provision) of the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 or in any other Act or law authorises a court to impose a lesser or alternative sentence.
(5)  Nothing in this section affects the obligation of a court to impose a sentence of imprisonment for life on a person convicted of murder in accordance with section 61 of the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999.
(6)  Nothing in this section affects the prerogative of mercy.
(7)  This section applies to offences committed after the commencement of this section.
20   Child murder—when child deemed born alive
On the trial of a person for the murder of a child, such child shall be held to have been born alive if it has breathed, and has been wholly born into the world whether it has had an independent circulation or not.
21   Child murder by mother—verdict of contributing to death etc
Whosoever, being a woman delivered of a child is indicted for its murder, shall, if the jury acquit her of the murder, and specially find that she has in any manner wilfully contributed to the death of such child, whether during delivery, or at or after its birth, or has wilfully caused any violence, the mark of which has been found on its body, be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
22   Trial for child murder—verdict of concealment of birth
Where, on the trial of a person for the murder or manslaughter of a child, the jury are not satisfied that the person is guilty thereof, but are satisfied that the person is guilty of an offence within section 85, they may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of an offence under the said section, and the person shall be liable to punishment accordingly.
22A   Infanticide
(1)  Where a woman by any wilful act or omission causes the death of her child, being a child under the age of twelve months, but at the time of the act or omission the balance of her mind was disturbed by reason of her not having fully recovered from the effect of giving birth to the child or by reason of the effect of lactation consequent upon the birth of the child, then, notwithstanding that the circumstances were such that but for this section the offence would have amounted to murder, she shall be guilty of infanticide, and may for such offence be dealt with and punished as if she had been guilty of the offence of manslaughter of such child.
(2)  Where upon the trial of a woman for the murder of her child, being a child under the age of twelve months, the jury are of opinion that she by any wilful act or omission caused its death, but that at the time of the act or omission the balance of her mind was disturbed by reason of her not having fully recovered from the effect of giving birth to such child or by reason of the effect of lactation consequent upon the birth of the child, then the jury may, notwithstanding that the circumstances were such that but for the provisions of this section they might have returned a verdict of murder, return in lieu thereof a verdict of infanticide, and the woman may be dealt with and punished as if she had been guilty of the offence of manslaughter of the said child.
(3)  Nothing in this section shall affect the power of the jury upon an indictment for the murder of a child to return a verdict of manslaughter or a verdict of not guilty on the ground of insanity, or a verdict of concealment of birth.
23   Trial for murder—partial defence of extreme provocation
(1)  If, on the trial of a person for murder, it appears that the act causing death was in response to extreme provocation and, but for this section and the provocation, the jury would have found the accused guilty of murder, the jury is to acquit the accused of murder and find the accused guilty of manslaughter.
(2)  An act is done in response to extreme provocation if and only if:
(a)  the act of the accused that causes death was in response to conduct of the deceased towards or affecting the accused, and
(b)  the conduct of the deceased was a serious indictable offence, and
(c)  the conduct of the deceased caused the accused to lose self-control, and
(d)  the conduct of the deceased could have caused an ordinary person to lose self-control to the extent of intending to kill or inflict grievous bodily harm on the deceased.
(3)  Conduct of the deceased does not constitute extreme provocation if:
(a)  the conduct was only a non-violent sexual advance to the accused, or
(b)  the accused incited the conduct in order to provide an excuse to use violence against the deceased.
(4)  Conduct of the deceased may constitute extreme provocation even if the conduct did not occur immediately before the act causing death.
(5)  For the purpose of determining whether an act causing death was in response to extreme provocation, evidence of self-induced intoxication of the accused (within the meaning of Part 11A) cannot be taken into account.
(6)  For the purpose of determining whether an act causing death was in response to extreme provocation, provocation is not negatived merely because the act causing death was done with intent to kill or inflict grievous bodily harm.
(7)  If, on the trial of a person for murder, there is any evidence that the act causing death was in response to extreme provocation, the onus is on the prosecution to prove beyond reasonable doubt that the act causing death was not in response to extreme provocation.
(8)  This section does not exclude or limit any defence to a charge of murder.
(9)  The substitution of this section by the Crimes Amendment (Provocation) Act 2014 does not apply to the trial of a person for murder that was allegedly committed before the commencement of that Act.
(10)  In this section:
act includes an omission to act.
23A   Substantial impairment by abnormality of mind
(1)  A person who would otherwise be guilty of murder is not to be convicted of murder if:
(a)  at the time of the acts or omissions causing the death concerned, the person’s capacity to understand events, or to judge whether the person’s actions were right or wrong, or to control himself or herself, was substantially impaired by an abnormality of mind arising from an underlying condition, and
(b)  the impairment was so substantial as to warrant liability for murder being reduced to manslaughter.
(2)  For the purposes of subsection (1) (b), evidence of an opinion that an impairment was so substantial as to warrant liability for murder being reduced to manslaughter is not admissible.
(3)  If a person was intoxicated at the time of the acts or omissions causing the death concerned, and the intoxication was self-induced intoxication (within the meaning of section 428A), the effects of that self-induced intoxication are to be disregarded for the purpose of determining whether the person is not liable to be convicted of murder by virtue of this section.
(4)  The onus is on the person accused to prove that he or she is not liable to be convicted of murder by virtue of this section.
(5)  A person who but for this section would be liable, whether as principal or accessory, to be convicted of murder is to be convicted of manslaughter instead.
(6)  The fact that a person is not liable to be convicted of murder in respect of a death by virtue of this section does not affect the question of whether any other person is liable to be convicted of murder in respect of that death.
(7)  If, on the trial of a person for murder, the person contends:
(a)  that the person is entitled to be acquitted on the ground that the person was mentally ill at the time of the acts or omissions causing the death concerned, or
(b)  that the person is not liable to be convicted of murder by virtue of this section,
evidence may be offered by the prosecution tending to prove the other of those contentions, and the Court may give directions as to the stage of the proceedings at which that evidence may be offered.
(8)  In this section:
underlying condition means a pre-existing mental or physiological condition, other than a condition of a transitory kind.
24   Manslaughter—punishment
Whosoever commits the crime of manslaughter shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years:
Provided that, in any case, if the Judge is of the opinion that, having regard to all the circumstances, a nominal punishment would be sufficient, the Judge may discharge the jury from giving any verdict, and such discharge shall operate as an acquittal.
25   (Repealed)
25A   Assault causing death
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if:
(a)  the person assaults another person by intentionally hitting the other person with any part of the person’s body or with an object held by the person, and
(b)  the assault is not authorised or excused by law, and
(c)  the assault causes the death of the other person.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 20 years.
(2)  A person who is of or above the age of 18 years is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) when the person is intoxicated.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(3)  For the purposes of this section, an assault causes the death of a person whether the person is killed as a result of the injuries received directly from the assault or from hitting the ground or an object as a consequence of the assault.
(4)  In proceedings for an offence under subsection (1) or (2), it is not necessary to prove that the death was reasonably foreseeable.
(5)  It is a defence in proceedings for an offence under subsection (2):
(a)  if the intoxication of the accused was not self-induced (within the meaning of Part 11A), or
(b)  if the accused had a significant cognitive impairment at the time the offence was alleged to have been committed (not being a temporary self-induced impairment).
(6)  In proceedings for an offence under subsection (2):
(a)  evidence may be given of the presence and concentration of any alcohol, drug or other substance in the accused’s breath, blood or urine at the time of the alleged offence as determined by an analysis carried out in accordance with Division 4 of Part 10 of the Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002, and
(b)  the accused is conclusively presumed to be intoxicated by alcohol if the prosecution proves in accordance with an analysis carried out in accordance with that Division that there was present in the accused’s breath or blood a concentration of 0.15 grams or more of alcohol in 210 litres of breath or 100 millilitres of blood.
(7)  If on the trial of a person for murder or manslaughter the jury is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has committed an offence under subsection (1) or (2), the jury may acquit the person of murder or manslaughter and find the person guilty of an offence under subsection (1) or (2). The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
(8)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under subsection (2) the jury is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has committed an offence under subsection (1), the jury may acquit the person of the offence under subsection (2) and find the person guilty of an offence under subsection (1). The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
(9)  Section 18 does not apply to an offence under subsection (1) or (2).
(10)  In this section, cognitive impairment includes an intellectual disability, a developmental disorder (including an autistic spectrum disorder), a neurological disorder, dementia, a mental illness or a brain injury.
25B   Assault causing death when intoxicated—mandatory minimum sentence
(1)  A court is required to impose a sentence of imprisonment of not less than 8 years on a person guilty of an offence under section 25A (2). Any non-parole period for the sentence is also required to be not less than 8 years.
(2)  If this section requires a person to be sentenced to a minimum period of imprisonment, nothing in section 21 (or any other provision) of the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 or in any other Act or law authorises a court to impose a lesser or no sentence (or to impose a lesser non-parole period).
(3)  Nothing in this section (apart from subsection (2)) affects the provisions of the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 or any other Act or law relating to the sentencing of offenders.
(4)  Nothing in this section affects the prerogative of mercy.
25C   Supply of drugs causing death
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence under this section if:
(a)  the person supplies a prohibited drug to another person for financial or material gain, and
(b)  the drug is self-administered by another person (whether or not the person to whom the drug was supplied), and
(c)  the self-administration of the drug causes or substantially causes the death of that other person.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 20 years.
(2)  In proceedings for an offence under this section, it is necessary to prove that the accused knew, or ought reasonably to have known, that supplying the prohibited drug would expose another person (whether or not the person to whom the drug was supplied) to a significant risk of death as a result of the self-administration of the drug.
(3)  A person does not commit an offence under this section for supplying a prohibited drug if the person is authorised to supply the drug under the Poisons and Therapeutic Goods Act 1966.
(4)  Proceedings for an offence under this section may only be instituted by or with the approval of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
(5)  Section 18 does not apply to an offence under this section.
(6)  In this section:
prohibited drug means any substance specified in Schedule 1 to the Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act 1985, but does not include a prohibited plant within the meaning of that Act.
Division 2 Conspiracy to murder
26   Conspiring to commit murder
Whosoever:
conspires and agrees to murder any person, whether a subject of Her Majesty or not, and whether within the Queen’s dominions or not, or
solicits, encourages, persuades, or endeavours to persuade, or proposes to, any person to commit any such murder,
shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
Division 3 Attempts to murder
27   Acts done to the person with intent to murder
Whosoever:
administers to, or causes to be taken by, any person any poison, or other destructive thing, or
by any means wounds, or causes grievous bodily harm to any person,
with intent in any such case to commit murder,
shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
28   Acts done to property with intent to murder
Whosoever:
sets fire to any vessel, or any chattel therein, or any part of her tackle apparel or furniture, or
casts away or destroys any vessel, or
by the explosion of gunpowder, or other explosive substance, destroys, or damages any building, or
places, or throws, any matter or thing upon or across a railway, or
removes, or displaces any sleeper, or other thing belonging to a railway,
with intent in any such case to commit murder,
shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
29   Certain other attempts to murder
Whosoever:
attempts to administer to, or cause to be taken by, any person any poison, or other destructive thing, or
shoots at, or in any manner attempts to discharge any kind of loaded arms at any person, or
attempts to drown, suffocate, or strangle any person,
with intent in any such case to commit murder,
shall, whether any bodily injury is effected or not, be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
30   Attempts to murder by other means
Whosoever, by any means other than those specified in sections 27 to 29 both inclusive, attempts to commit murder shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
Division 4 Documents containing threats
31   Documents containing threats
(1)  A person who intentionally or recklessly, and knowing its contents, sends or delivers, or directly or indirectly causes to be received, any document threatening to kill or inflict bodily harm on any person is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  It is immaterial for the purposes of an offence under this section whether or not a document sent or delivered is actually received, and whether or not the threat contained in a document sent, delivered or received is actually communicated to the person concerned or to the recipient or intended recipient of the document (as relevant in the circumstances).
Division 5 Suicide
31A   Suicide and attempt to commit suicide
The rule of law that it is a crime for a person to commit, or to attempt to commit, suicide is abrogated.
31B   Survivor of suicide pact
(1)  The survivor of a suicide pact shall not be guilty of murder or manslaughter but may be guilty of an offence under section 31C.
(2)  In this section, suicide pact means a common agreement between 2 or more persons having for its object the death of all of them, whether or not each is to take his or her own life, but nothing done by a person who enters into a suicide pact shall be treated as being done by the person in pursuance of the pact unless it is done while the person has the settled intention of dying in pursuance of the pact.
(3)  The onus of proving the existence of a suicide pact shall lie with the accused person on the balance of probabilities.
31C   Aiding etc suicide
(1)  A person who aids or abets the suicide or attempted suicide of another person shall be liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  Where:
(a)  a person incites or counsels another person to commit suicide, and
(b)  that other person commits, or attempts to commit, suicide as a consequence of that incitement or counsel,
the firstmentioned person shall be liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
Division 6 Acts causing danger to life or bodily harm
32   Impeding endeavours to escape shipwreck
Whosoever:
intentionally or recklessly prevents or impedes any person on board of, or having quitted, any ship or vessel in distress, or wrecked, stranded, or cast on shore, in his or her endeavour to save his or her life, or
intentionally or recklessly prevents or impedes any person in his or her endeavour to save the life of such first-mentioned person,
shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
32A–32C   (Repealed)
33   Wounding or grievous bodily harm with intent
(1) Intent to cause grievous bodily harm A person who:
(a)  wounds any person, or
(b)  causes grievous bodily harm to any person,
with intent to cause grievous bodily harm to that or any other person is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) Intent to resist arrest A person who:
(a)  wounds any person, or
(b)  causes grievous bodily harm to any person,
with intent to resist or prevent his or her (or another person’s) lawful arrest or detention is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(3) Alternative verdict If on the trial of a person charged with an offence against this section the jury is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has committed an offence against section 35, the jury may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of an offence against section 35. The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
33A   Discharging firearm etc with intent
(1) Intent to cause grievous bodily harm A person who:
(a)  discharges any firearm or other loaded arms, or
(b)  attempts to discharge any firearm or other loaded arms,
with intent to cause grievous bodily harm to any person is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
(2) Intent to resist arrest etc A person who:
(a)  discharges any firearm or other loaded arms, or
(b)  attempts to discharge any firearm or other loaded arms,
with intent to resist or prevent his or her (or another person’s) lawful arrest or detention is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
33B   Use or possession of weapon to resist arrest etc
(1)  Any person who:
(a)  uses, attempts to use, threatens to use or possesses an offensive weapon or instrument, or
(b)  threatens injury to any person or property,
with intent to commit an indictable offence or with intent to prevent or hinder the lawful apprehension or detention either of himself or herself or any other person or to prevent or hinder a police officer from investigating any act or circumstance which reasonably calls for investigation by the officer is liable to imprisonment for 12 years.
(2)  A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in the company of another person or persons. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 15 years.
34   (Repealed)
35   Reckless grievous bodily harm or wounding
(1) Reckless grievous bodily harm—in company A person who, in the company of another person or persons:
(a)  causes grievous bodily harm to any person, and
(b)  is reckless as to causing actual bodily harm to that or any other person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 14 years.
(2) Reckless grievous bodily harm A person who:
(a)  causes grievous bodily harm to any person, and
(b)  is reckless as to causing actual bodily harm to that or any other person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(3) Reckless wounding—in company A person who, in the company of another person or persons:
(a)  wounds any person, and
(b)  is reckless as to causing actual bodily harm to that or any other person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(4) Reckless wounding A person who:
(a)  wounds any person, and
(b)  is reckless as to causing actual bodily harm to that or any other person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 7 years.
(5) Alternative verdict If on the trial of a person charged with an offence against any subsection of this section the jury is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has committed an offence against any other subsection of this section (that carries a lesser maximum penalty), the jury may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of an offence against that other subsection. The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
35A   Causing dog to inflict grievous bodily harm or actual bodily harm
(1) Cause dog to inflict grievous bodily harm A person who:
(a)  has control of a dog, and
(b)  does any act that causes the dog to inflict grievous bodily harm on another person, and
(c)  is reckless as to the injury that may be caused to a person by the act,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2) Cause dog to inflict actual bodily harm A person who:
(a)  has control of a dog, and
(b)  does any act that causes the dog to inflict actual bodily harm on another person, and
(c)  is reckless as to the injury that may be caused to a person by the act,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(3) Alternative finding If, on the trial of a person for an offence under subsection (1), it appears that grievous bodily harm was not inflicted on the other person but that actual bodily harm was inflicted, the person may be found not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under subsection (2) and be liable to punishment accordingly.
(4) Doing an act includes omitting to do the act In this section, a reference to the doing of an act includes a reference to omitting to do the act.
36   (Repealed)
37   Choking, suffocation and strangulation
(1A)  A person is guilty of an offence if the person intentionally chokes, suffocates or strangles another person without the other person’s consent.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 5 years.
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence if the person:
(a)  intentionally chokes, suffocates or strangles another person so as to render the other person unconscious, insensible or incapable of resistance, and
(b)  is reckless as to rendering the other person unconscious, insensible or incapable of resistance.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person is guilty of an offence if the person:
(a)  chokes, suffocates or strangles another person so as to render the other person unconscious, insensible or incapable of resistance, and
(b)  does so with the intention of enabling himself or herself to commit, or assisting any other person to commit, another indictable offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 25 years.
(3)  In this section:
another indictable offence means an indictable offence other than an offence against this section.
38   Using intoxicating substance to commit an indictable offence
A person who:
(a)  administers an intoxicating substance to another person, or
(b)  causes another person to take an intoxicating substance,
with intent to enable himself or herself, or to assist a third person, to commit an indictable offence is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
38A   Spiking drink or food
(1)  In this section:
harm includes an impairment of the senses or understanding of a person that the person might reasonably be expected to object to in the circumstances.
impair includes further impair.
(2)  A person:
(a)  who causes another person to be given or to consume drink or food:
(i)  containing an intoxicating substance that the other person is not aware it contains, or
(ii)  containing more of an intoxicating substance than the other person would reasonably expect it to contain, and
(b)  who intends a person to be harmed by the consumption of the drink or food,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 2 years or 100 penalty units, or both.
(3)  For the purposes of this section, giving a person drink or food includes preparing the drink or food for the person or making it available for consumption by the person.
(4)  A person does not commit an offence against this section if the person has reasonable cause to believe that each person who was likely to consume the drink or food would not have objected to consuming the drink or food if the person had been aware of the presence and quantity of the intoxicating substance in the drink or food.
(5)  A person who uses an intoxicating substance in the course of any medical, dental or other health professional practice does not commit an offence against this section.
(6)  An offence against this section is a summary offence.
39   Using poison etc to endanger life or inflict grievous bodily harm
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  the person administers to another person, or causes another person to take, any poison, intoxicating substance or other destructive or noxious thing, and
(b)  the poison, intoxicating substance or other thing endangers the life of, or inflicts grievous bodily harm on, the other person, and
(c)  the person intends to injure, or is reckless about injuring, the other person.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  If on the trial of a person charged with an offence against this section the jury is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has committed an offence against section 41 or 41A, the jury may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of an offence against section 41 or 41A. The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
40   (Repealed)
41   Using poison etc to injure or to cause distress or pain
A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  the person administers to another person, or causes another person to take, any poison, intoxicating substance or other destructive or noxious thing, and
(b)  the person intends to injure, or to cause distress or pain to, the other person.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
41A   Poisoning etc of water supply
A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  the person introduces any poison or other destructive or noxious thing into a supply of water, and
(b)  the person intends to injure any person or persons.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
42   Injuries to child at time of birth
Whosoever, during or after the delivery of a child, intentionally or recklessly inflicts on such child, whether then wholly born or not, any grievous bodily harm, shall be liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
43   Abandoning or exposing a child under 7 years
A person who, without reasonable excuse, intentionally abandons or exposes a child under 7 years of age is guilty of an offence if it causes a danger of death or of serious injury to the child.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
43A   Failure of persons with parental responsibility to care for child
(1)  In this section:
child means a child under 16 years of age.
parental responsibility means the duties, powers, responsibilities and authority in respect of a child that, by law, parents have in relation to their children.
(2)  A person:
(a)  who has parental responsibility for a child, and
(b)  who, without reasonable excuse, intentionally or recklessly fails to provide the child with the necessities of life,
is guilty of an offence if the failure causes a danger of death or of serious injury to the child.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
43B   Failure to reduce or remove risk of child becoming victim of child abuse
(1)  A person commits an offence if:
(a)  the person is an adult who carries out work for an organisation, whether as an employee, contractor, volunteer or otherwise (a position holder), and
(b)  the organisation is the employer of an adult worker who engages in child-related work, and
(c)  there is a serious risk that the adult worker will commit a child abuse offence against a child who is, or may come, under the care, supervision or authority of the organisation, and
(d)  the position holder knows that the risk exists, and
(e)  the position holder, by reason of the person’s position, has the power or responsibility to reduce or remove that risk, and
(f)  the position holder negligently fails to reduce or remove that risk.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 2 years.
(2)  In proceedings for an offence under this section, it is not necessary to prove that a child abuse offence has been committed.
(3)  In this section:
adult means a person who is of or above the age of 18 years.
child means a person who is under the age of 18 years.
child abuse offence means:
(a)  murder or manslaughter of a child (including under section 22A), or
(b)  an offence under section 27, 29, 33, 35, 37, 38, 38A, 39, 41, 41A, 44, 45, 45A, 46, 59, 60E, 86 or 91J or Division 10, 10A, 10B or 15 of Part 3 where the alleged victim is a child, or
(c)  an offence under section 42, 43, 43A, 91G or 91H, or
(d)  an offence of attempting to commit an offence referred to in paragraphs (a)–(c).
child-related work (and engage in child-related work), employer and worker have the same meanings as in the Child Protection (Working with Children) Act 2012.
44   Failure of persons to provide necessities of life
(1)  A person:
(a)  who is under a legal duty to provide another person with the necessities of life, and
(b)  who, without reasonable excuse, intentionally or recklessly fails to provide that person with the necessities of life,
is guilty of an offence if the failure causes a danger of death or causes serious injury, or the likelihood of serious injury, to that person.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  A person cannot be found guilty of both an offence against section 43A and an offence against this section in respect of the same act or omission.
45   Prohibition of female genital mutilation
(1)  A person who:
(a)  excises, infibulates or otherwise mutilates the whole or any part of the labia majora or labia minora or clitoris of another person, or
(b)  aids, abets, counsels or procures a person to perform any of those acts on another person,
is liable to imprisonment for 21 years.
(2)    (Repealed)
(3)  It is not an offence against this section to perform a surgical operation if that operation:
(a)  is necessary for the health of the person on whom it is performed and is performed by a medical practitioner, or
(b)  is performed on a person in labour or who has just given birth, and for medical purposes connected with that labour or birth, by a medical practitioner or authorised professional, or
(c)  is a sexual reassignment procedure and is performed by a medical practitioner.
(4)  In determining whether an operation is necessary for the health of a person only matters relevant to the medical welfare of the person are to be taken into account.
(5)  It is not a defence to a charge under this section that the person mutilated by or because of the acts alleged to have been committed consented to the acts.
(6)  This section applies only to acts occurring after the commencement of the section.
(7)  In this section:
authorised professional means:
(a)  a registered midwife, or
(b)  a midwifery student, or
(c)  in relation to an operation performed in a place outside Australia—a person authorised to practise midwifery by a body established under the law of that place having functions similar to the functions of the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, or
(d)  a medical student.
medical practitioner, in relation to an operation performed in a place outside Australia, includes a person authorised to practise medicine by a body established under the law of that place having functions similar to the Medical Board of Australia.
medical student means:
(a)  a person who is registered as a student within the meaning of the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law (NSW) in the medical profession, or
(b)  in relation to an operation performed in a place outside Australia—a person undergoing a course of training with a view to being authorised to be a medical practitioner in that place.
midwifery student means:
(a)  a person who is registered as a student within the meaning of the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law (NSW) in the midwifery profession, or
(b)  in relation to an operation performed in a place outside Australia—a person undergoing a course of training with a view to being authorised to be a midwife practitioner in that place.
sexual reassignment procedure means a surgical procedure to alter the genital appearance of a person to the appearance (as nearly as practicable) of the opposite sex to the sex of the person.
45A   Removing person from State for female genital mutilation
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence if the person takes another person from the State, or arranges for another person to be taken from the State, with the intention of having female genital mutilation performed on the other person.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 21 years.
(2)  In proceedings for an offence under subsection (1) and in the absence of proof to the contrary, it is to be presumed that the accused took another person, or arranged for another person to be taken, from the State with the intention of female genital mutilation being performed on the other person if it is proved that:
(a)  the accused took the person, or arranged for the person to be taken, from the State, and
(b)  female genital mutilation was performed on the person while outside the State.
(3)  It is not a defence to a charge under this section that the person taken from the State consented to being so taken.
(4)  In this section:
female genital mutilation means an act referred to in section 45 (1) (a), the performance of which would be an offence against that section if performed in the State.
46   Causing bodily injury by gunpowder etc
Whosoever intentionally or recklessly by the explosion of gunpowder or other substance, or the use of any corrosive fluid, or destructive matter, burns maims disfigures disables, or does grievous bodily harm to, any person, shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
47   Using etc explosive substance or corrosive fluid etc
Whosoever:
causes any gunpowder or other explosive substance to explode, or
sends, or delivers to, or causes to be taken, or received by, any person, any explosive substance, or other dangerous or noxious thing, or
puts or lays at any place, or casts or throws at, or upon, or otherwise applies to, any person, any corrosive fluid or any destructive or explosive substance (including petrol),
with intent in any such case to burn maim disfigure disable, or do grievous bodily harm to, any person,
shall, whether bodily injury is effected or not, be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
48   Causing explosives to be placed in or near building, conveyance or public place
(1)  A person who causes an explosive to be placed in or near:
(a)  a building, or
(b)  a vehicle, vessel, train or other conveyance, or
(c)  a public place,
with the intention of causing bodily harm to any person, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 14 years.
(2)  A person commits an offence under this section whether or not:
(a)  any explosion occurs, or
(b)  any bodily harm is caused.
49   Setting trap etc
(1)  Any person who:
(a)  places or sets, or causes to be placed or set, any trap, device or thing (whether its nature be electronic, electric, mechanical, chemical or otherwise) capable of destroying human life or inflicting grievous bodily harm on any person, or
(b)  knowingly permits any such trap, device or thing to continue to be placed or set,
with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm shall be liable to imprisonment for five years.
(2)  Nothing in subsection (1) shall extend to any gin or trap, placed with the intention of destroying vermin, or to any trap, device or thing placed in a dwelling-house for the protection thereof.
49A   Throwing rocks and other objects at vehicles and vessels
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  the person intentionally throws an object at, or drops an object on or towards, a vehicle or vessel that is on any road, railway or navigable waters, and
(b)  there is a person in the vehicle or vessel, and
(c)  the conduct risks the safety of any person.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  This section extends to a vehicle or vessel that is stationary at the time that the object is thrown or dropped.
(3)  In the prosecution of an offence under this section, it is not necessary to prove:
(a)  that the accused was aware that his or her conduct risked the safety of any person, or
(b)  that the object made contact with the vehicle or vessel.
(4)  In this section:
road means a road or road related area within the meaning of section 4 (1) of the Road Transport Act 2013.
throw includes propel.
vehicle includes:
(a)  a motor vehicle, and
(b)  a train or tram, and
(c)  a bicycle, and
(d)  a vehicle drawn by an animal or an animal ridden by a person.
50, 51   (Repealed)
51A   Predatory driving
(1)  The driver of a vehicle who, while in pursuit of or travelling near another vehicle:
(a)  engages in a course of conduct that causes or threatens an impact involving the other vehicle, and
(b)  intends by that course of conduct to cause a person in the other vehicle actual bodily harm,
is guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  This section does not take away the liability of any person to be prosecuted for or found guilty of an offence under this Act or of any other offence, or affect the punishment that may be imposed for any such offence. However, a person who:
(a)  has been convicted or acquitted of an offence under this section cannot be prosecuted for any other offence under this Act on the same, or substantially the same, facts, or
(b)  has been convicted or acquitted of any other offence under this Act cannot be prosecuted for an offence under this section on the same, or substantially the same, facts.
(3)  In this section:
impact involving a vehicle includes:
(a)  an impact with any other vehicle or with a person or object, or
(b)  the vehicle overturning or leaving a road.
vehicle has the same meaning it has in section 52A.
51B   Police pursuits
(1)  The driver of a vehicle:
(a)  who knows, ought reasonably to know or has reasonable grounds to suspect that police officers are in pursuit of the vehicle and that the driver is required to stop the vehicle, and
(b)  who does not stop the vehicle, and
(c)  who then drives the vehicle recklessly or at a speed or in a manner dangerous to others,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty:
(a)  in the case of a first offence—imprisonment for 3 years, or
(b)  in the case of an offence on a second or subsequent occasion—imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  In this section, vehicle has the same meaning as it has in section 52A.
52   (Repealed)
52A   Dangerous driving: substantive matters
(1) Dangerous driving occasioning death A person is guilty of the offence of dangerous driving occasioning death if the vehicle driven by the person is involved in an impact occasioning the death of another person and the driver was, at the time of the impact, driving the vehicle:
(a)  under the influence of intoxicating liquor or of a drug, or
(b)  at a speed dangerous to another person or persons, or
(c)  in a manner dangerous to another person or persons.
A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2) Aggravated dangerous driving occasioning death A person is guilty of the offence of aggravated dangerous driving occasioning death if the person commits the offence of dangerous driving occasioning death in circumstances of aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(3) Dangerous driving occasioning grievous bodily harm A person is guilty of the offence of dangerous driving occasioning grievous bodily harm if the vehicle driven by the person is involved in an impact occasioning grievous bodily harm to another person and the driver was, at the time of the impact, driving the vehicle:
(a)  under the influence of intoxicating liquor or of a drug, or
(b)  at a speed dangerous to another person or persons, or
(c)  in a manner dangerous to another person or persons.
A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(4) Aggravated dangerous driving occasioning grievous bodily harm A person is guilty of the offence of aggravated dangerous driving occasioning grievous bodily harm if the person commits the offence of dangerous driving occasioning grievous bodily harm in circumstances of aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 11 years.
(5) When vehicle is involved in impact—generally For the purposes of this section, the circumstances in which a vehicle is involved in an impact occasioning the death of, or grievous bodily harm to, a person include if the death or harm is occasioned through any of the following:
(a)  the vehicle overturning or leaving a road while the person is being conveyed in or on that vehicle (whether as a passenger or otherwise),
(b)  an impact between any object and the vehicle while the person is being conveyed in or on that vehicle (whether as a passenger or otherwise),
(c)  an impact between the person and the vehicle,
(d)  the impact of the vehicle with another vehicle or an object in, on or near which the person is at the time of the impact,
(e)  an impact with anything on, or attached to, the vehicle,
(f)  an impact with anything that is in motion through falling from the vehicle,
(g)  the person falling from the vehicle, or being thrown or ejected from the vehicle, while being conveyed in or on the vehicle (whether as a passenger or otherwise),
(h)  an impact between any object (including the ground) and the person, as a consequence of the person (or any part of the person) being or protruding outside the vehicle, while the person is being conveyed in or on the vehicle (whether as a passenger or otherwise).
(6) When vehicle is involved in causing other impacts For the purposes of this section, a vehicle is also involved in an impact occasioning the death of, or grievous bodily harm to, a person if:
(a)  the death or harm is occasioned through the vehicle causing an impact between other vehicles or between another vehicle and any object or person or causing another vehicle to overturn or leave a road, and
(b)  the prosecution proves that the vehicle caused the impact.
(7) Circumstances of aggravation In this section, circumstances of aggravation means any circumstances at the time of the impact occasioning death or grievous bodily harm in which:
(a)  the prescribed concentration of alcohol was present in the accused’s breath or blood, or
(b)  the accused was driving the vehicle concerned on a road at a speed that exceeded, by more than 45 kilometres per hour, the speed limit (if any) applicable to that length of road, or
(c)  the accused was driving the vehicle to escape pursuit by a police officer, or
(d)  the accused’s ability to drive was very substantially impaired by the fact that the accused was under the influence of a drug (other than intoxicating liquor) or a combination of drugs (whether or not intoxicating liquor was part of that combination).
(8) Defences It is a defence to any charge under this section if the death or grievous bodily harm occasioned by the impact was not in any way attributable (as relevant):
(a)  to the fact that the person charged was under the influence of intoxicating liquor or of a drug or a combination of drugs, or
(b)  to the speed at which the vehicle was driven, or
(c)  to the manner in which the vehicle was driven.
(9) Definitions In this section:
drug has the same meaning as it has in the Road Transport Act 2013.
object includes an animal, building, structure, earthwork, embankment, gutter, stormwater channel, drain, bridge, culvert, median strip, post or tree.
prescribed concentration of alcohol means a concentration of 0.15 grammes or more of alcohol in 210 litres of breath or 100 millilitres of blood.
road means:
(a)  a road or road related area within the meaning of section 4 (1) of the Road Transport Act 2013 (other than a road or road related area that is the subject of a declaration made under section 18 (1) (b) of that Act relating to all of the provisions of that Act), or
(b)  any other place.
vehicle means:
(a)  any motor car, motor carriage, motor cycle or other vehicle propelled wholly or partly by volatile spirit, steam, gas, oil, electricity, or by any other means other than human or animal power, or
(b)  a horse-drawn vehicle,
whether or not it is adapted for road use, but does not mean a vehicle used on a railway or tramway.
52AA   Dangerous driving: procedural matters
(1) Presumption as to intoxication For the purposes of section 52A, the accused is conclusively presumed to be under the influence of liquor if the prosecution proves that the prescribed concentration of alcohol was present in the accused’s breath or blood at the time of the impact occasioning death or grievous bodily harm.
(2) Evidence of intoxication—alcohol For the purposes of section 52A, evidence may be given of the concentration of alcohol present in the accused’s blood at the time of the impact occasioning death or grievous bodily harm as determined by a blood analysis carried out in accordance with Part 4 of Schedule 3 to the Road Transport Act 2013.
(3) Time of intoxication A concentration of alcohol determined by the means referred to in subsection (2) is taken to be the concentration of alcohol in the accused’s blood at the time of the impact occasioning death or grievous bodily harm:
(a)  if the blood sample that was analysed was taken within 2 hours after the impact, and
(b)  unless the accused proves that the concentration of alcohol in the accused’s blood at the time of the impact was less than the prescribed concentration of alcohol.
(3A) Evidence of intoxication—drugs For the purposes of section 52A, evidence may be given of the concentration of a drug (other than alcohol) present in the accused’s blood or urine at the time of the impact occasioning death or grievous bodily harm as determined by a blood or urine analysis carried out in accordance with Part 4 of Schedule 3 to the Road Transport Act 2013.
(3B) Time of intoxication A concentration of a drug (other than alcohol) determined by the means referred to in subsection (3A) is taken to be the concentration of the drug in the accused’s blood or urine at the time of the impact occasioning death or grievous bodily harm:
(a)  if the blood or urine sample that was analysed was taken within 4 hours after the impact, and
(b)  unless the accused proves that there was no such drug in the accused’s blood or urine at the time of the impact.
(4) Alternative verdicts If on the trial of a person who is indicted for murder or manslaughter or for an offence under section 53 or 54 the jury is satisfied that the person is guilty of an offence under section 52A, it may find the accused guilty of the offence under section 52A, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(5) Question of aggravation If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 52A (2) or (4) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 52A (1) or (3), it may find that the accused is guilty of the offence under section 52A (1) or (3), and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(6) Double jeopardy This section does not take away the liability of any person to be prosecuted for or found guilty of murder, manslaughter or any other offence or affect the punishment that may be imposed for any such offence. However, a person who:
(a)  has been convicted or acquitted of an offence under section 52A cannot be prosecuted for murder or manslaughter or for any other offence under this Act on the same, or substantially the same, facts, or
(b)  has been convicted or acquitted of murder or manslaughter or of any other offence under this Act cannot be prosecuted for an offence under section 52A on the same, or substantially the same, facts.
(7) Definitions In this section:
prescribed concentration of alcohol means a concentration of 0.15 grammes or more of alcohol in 210 litres of breath or 100 millilitres of blood.
52AB   Offence of failing to stop and assist after vehicle impact causing death or grievous bodily harm
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  a vehicle being driven by the person is involved in an impact occasioning the death of another person, and
(b)  the person knows, or ought reasonably to know, that the vehicle has been involved in an impact occasioning the death of, or grievous bodily harm to, another person, and
(c)  the person fails to stop and give any assistance that may be necessary and that it is in his or her power to give.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  a vehicle being driven by the person is involved in an impact occasioning grievous bodily harm to another person, and
(b)  the person knows, or ought reasonably to know, that the vehicle has been involved in an impact occasioning the death of, or grievous bodily harm to, another person, and
(c)  the person fails to stop and give any assistance that may be necessary and that it is in his or her power to give.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 7 years.
(3)  The provisions of section 52A (5) and (6) (which prescribe circumstances in which a vehicle is taken to be involved in an impact) apply for the purposes of this section in the same way as they apply for the purposes of section 52A.
(4)  In this section, vehicle has the same meaning as it has in section 52A.
52B   Dangerous navigation: substantive matters
(1) Dangerous navigation occasioning death A person is guilty of the offence of dangerous navigation occasioning death if the vessel navigated by the person is involved in an impact occasioning the death of another person and the person navigating the vessel was, at the time of the impact, navigating the vessel:
(a)  under the influence of intoxicating liquor or of a drug, or
(b)  at a speed dangerous to another person or persons, or
(c)  in a manner dangerous to another person or persons.
A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2) Aggravated dangerous navigation occasioning death A person is guilty of the offence of aggravated dangerous navigation occasioning death if the person commits the offence of dangerous navigation occasioning death in circumstances of aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(3) Dangerous navigation causing grievous bodily harm A person is guilty of the offence of dangerous navigation causing grievous bodily harm if the vessel navigated by the person is involved in an impact occasioning grievous bodily harm to another person and the person navigating the vessel was, at the time of the impact, navigating the vessel:
(a)  under the influence of intoxicating liquor or of a drug, or
(b)  at a speed dangerous to another person or persons, or
(c)  in a manner dangerous to another person or persons.
A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(4) Aggravated dangerous navigation occasioning grievous bodily harm A person is guilty of the offence of aggravated dangerous navigation occasioning grievous bodily harm if the person commits the offence of dangerous navigation occasioning grievous bodily harm in circumstances of aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 11 years.
(5) When vessel is involved in impact—generally For the purposes of this section, the circumstances in which a vessel is involved in an impact occasioning the death of, or grievous bodily harm to, a person include if the death or harm is occasioned through any of the following:
(a)  the vessel overturning or running aground while the person is being conveyed in or on the vessel (whether as a passenger or otherwise),
(b)  an impact between any object and the vessel while the person is being conveyed in or on that vessel (whether as a passenger or otherwise),
(c)  an impact between the person and the vessel,
(d)  the impact of the vessel with another vessel or an object in, on or near which the person is at the time of the impact,
(e)  an impact with anything on, or attached to, the vessel,
(f)  an impact with anything that was in motion through falling from the vessel,
(g)  the person falling from the vessel, or being thrown or ejected from the vessel, while being conveyed in or on the vessel (whether as a passenger or otherwise),
(h)  an impact between any object (including the water and the ground) and the person, as a consequence of the person (or any part of the person) being or protruding outside the vessel, while the person is being conveyed in or on the vessel (whether as a passenger or otherwise).
(6) When vessel is involved in causing other impacts For the purposes of this section, a vessel is also involved in an impact occasioning the death of, or grievous bodily harm to, a person if the death or harm is occasioned through the vessel causing an impact between other vessels or between another vessel and any object or person or causing another vessel to overturn or run aground.
(7) Circumstances of aggravation In this section, circumstances of aggravation means any circumstances at the time of the impact occasioning death or grievous bodily harm in which:
(a)  the prescribed concentration of alcohol was present in the accused’s breath or blood, or
(b)  the accused was navigating the vessel at a speed that exceeds the speed limit (if any) applicable to the person navigating the vessel, or to the navigable waters, on which the vessel was navigated at the time of the impact, or
(c)  the accused was navigating the vessel in an attempt to escape pursuit by a police officer, or
(d)  the accused’s ability to navigate was very substantially impaired by the fact that the accused was under the influence of a drug (other than intoxicating liquor) or a combination of drugs (whether or not intoxicating liquor was part of that combination).
(8) Defences It is a defence to any charge under this section if the death or grievous bodily harm occasioned by the impact was not in any way attributable (as relevant):
(a)  to the fact that the person charged was under the influence of intoxicating liquor or of a drug or a combination of drugs, or
(b)  to the speed at which the vessel was navigated, or
(c)  to the manner in which the vessel was navigated.
(9) Definitions In this section:
drug has the same meaning as it has in the Road Transport Act 2013.
object includes a pier, wharf, jetty, pontoon, buoy, breakwater, bridge, support, mooring post or platform, navigation aid, retaining wall, marina, boatshed, slipway or swimming enclosure.
prescribed concentration of alcohol means a concentration of 0.15 grams or more of alcohol in 210 litres of breath or 100 millilitres of blood.
vessel means a vessel within the meaning of the Marine Safety Act 1998.
52BA   Dangerous navigation: procedural matters
(1) Presumption as to intoxication For the purposes of section 52B, the accused is conclusively presumed to be under the influence of liquor if the prosecution proves that the prescribed concentration of alcohol was present in the accused’s breath or blood at the time of the impact occasioning death or grievous bodily harm.
(2) Evidence of intoxication For the purposes of section 52B, evidence may be given of the concentration of alcohol present in the accused’s blood at the time of the impact occasioning death or grievous bodily harm as determined by a blood analysis carried out in accordance with Schedule 1 to the Marine Safety Act 1998.
(3) Time of intoxication A concentration of alcohol determined by the means referred to in subsection (2) is taken to be the concentration of alcohol in the accused’s blood at the time of the impact occasioning death or grievous bodily harm:
(a)  if the blood sample that was analysed was taken within 2 hours after the impact, and
(b)  unless the accused proves that the concentration of alcohol in the accused’s blood at that time was less than the prescribed concentration of alcohol.
(4) Alternative verdicts If on the trial of a person who is indicted for murder or manslaughter or for an offence under section 54 the jury is satisfied that the person is guilty of an offence under section 52B, it may find the accused guilty of the offence under section 52B, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(5) Question of aggravation If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 52B (2) or (4) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 52B (1) or (3), it may find that the accused is guilty of the offence under section 52B (1) or (3), and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(6) Double jeopardy This section does not take away the liability of any person to be prosecuted for or found guilty of murder, manslaughter or any other offence or affect the punishment that may be imposed for any such offence. However, a person who:
(a)  has been convicted or acquitted of an offence under section 52B cannot be prosecuted for murder or manslaughter or for any other offence under this Act on the same, or substantially the same, facts, or
(b)  has been convicted or acquitted of murder or manslaughter or of any other offence under this Act cannot be prosecuted for an offence under section 52B on the same, or substantially the same, facts.
(7) Definition In this section:
prescribed concentration of alcohol means a concentration of 0.15 grams or more of alcohol in 210 litres of breath or 100 millilitres of blood.
53   Injuries by furious driving etc
Whosoever, being at the time on horseback, or in charge of any carriage or other vehicle, by wanton or furious riding, or driving, or racing, or other misconduct, or by wilful neglect, does or causes to be done to any person any bodily harm, shall be liable to imprisonment for two years.
54   Causing grievous bodily harm
Whosoever by any unlawful or negligent act, or omission, causes grievous bodily harm to any person, shall be liable to imprisonment for two years.
Division 7 Possessing or making explosive etc with intent to injure the person
55   Possessing or making explosives or other things with intent to injure
Whosoever knowingly has in his or her possession, or makes, or manufactures, any gunpowder, explosive substance, or dangerous or noxious thing, or any machine, engine, instrument, or thing:
(a)  with intent by means thereof to injure, or otherwise commit a serious indictable offence against the person of any one, or
(b)  for the purpose of enabling another person to injure, or otherwise commit a serious indictable offence against the person of any one,
shall be liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
Division 8 Assaults
56   Obstructing member of the clergy in discharge of his or her duties
Whosoever:
by threats or force prevents, or endeavours to prevent, any member of the clergy, or other person duly authorised in that behalf, from officiating in a place of divine worship, or from the performance of his or her duty in the lawful burial of the dead in a burial-place, or
strikes, or offers any violence to, any member of the clergy, or minister engaged in, or to the knowledge of the offender about to engage in, any of the duties aforesaid, or going to perform the same,
shall be liable to imprisonment for two years.
57   Assault on persons preserving wreck
Whosoever wounds, strikes, or assaults, any person while in the execution of his or her duty concerning the preservation of a vessel in distress, or any vessel or effects, stranded, or cast on shore, or lying under water, with intent to obstruct him or her, or thereby in fact obstructing him or her in the execution of such duty, shall be liable to imprisonment for seven years.
58   Assault with intent to commit a serious indictable offence on certain officers
Whosoever:
assaults any person with intent to commit a serious indictable offence, or
assaults, resists, or wilfully obstructs any officer while in the execution of his or her duty, such officer being a constable, or other peace officer, custom-house officer, prison officer, sheriff’s officer, or bailiff, or any person acting in aid of such officer, or
assaults any person, with intent to resist or prevent the lawful apprehension or detainer of any person for any offence,
shall be liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
59   Assault occasioning actual bodily harm
(1)  Whosoever assaults any person, and thereby occasions actual bodily harm, shall be liable to imprisonment for five years.
(2)  A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in the company of another person or persons. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
59A   Assault during public disorder
(1)  A person who assaults any person during a large-scale public disorder, although not occasioning actual bodily harm, is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  A person who assaults any person during a large-scale public disorder, and by the assault occasions actual bodily harm, is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(3), (4)    (Repealed)
Division 8A Assaults and other actions against police and other law enforcement officers
60AA   Meaning of “law enforcement officer”
In this Division:
law enforcement officer means:
(a)  a police officer, or
(b)  a Commissioner or Assistant Commissioner of the Independent Commission Against Corruption, or
(c)  an officer of the Independent Commission Against Corruption, within the meaning of the Independent Commission Against Corruption Act 1988, who performs investigation functions, or
(d)  a Commissioner or Assistant Commissioner of the Law Enforcement Conduct Commission, within the meaning of the Law Enforcement Conduct Commission Act 2016, or
(e)  any other officer of the Law Enforcement Conduct Commission, within the meaning of the Law Enforcement Conduct Commission Act 2016, who performs investigation or confiscation functions, or
(f)  the Commissioner for the New South Wales Crime Commission or an Assistant Commissioner for that Commission, or
(g)  a member of staff of the New South Wales Crime Commission, within the meaning of the Crime Commission Act 2012, who performs investigation or confiscation functions, or
(h)  the Commissioner of Corrective Services, or
(i)  governors of correctional centres, correctional officers and community corrections officers, within the meaning of the Crimes (Administration of Sentences) Act 1999, or
(j)  an officer of the Department of Juvenile Justice who works with children who have, or are alleged to have, committed offences and who is employed at or works from a community centre or children’s detention centre, or
(k)  an officer of the Department of Juvenile Justice who is involved in the conduct of youth justice conferences, or
(l)  a Crown Prosecutor or an Acting Crown Prosecutor, or
(m)  an Australian legal practitioner who is employed as a member of staff of the Director of Public Prosecutions, or
(n)  a sheriff’s officer, or
(o)  a recognised law enforcement officer within the meaning of the Police Act 1990, or
(p)  a special constable within the meaning of section 82L of the Police Act 1990, or
(q)  an officer of an approved charitable organisation, within the meaning of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1979, who performs investigation, confiscation or other law enforcement functions.
60   Assault and other actions against police officers
(1)  A person who assaults, throws a missile at, stalks, harasses or intimidates a police officer while in the execution of the officer’s duty, although no actual bodily harm is occasioned to the officer, is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
(1A)  A person who, during a public disorder, assaults, throws a missile at, stalks, harasses or intimidates a police officer while in the execution of the officer’s duty, although no actual bodily harm is occasioned to the officer, is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(2)  A person who assaults a police officer while in the execution of the officer’s duty, and by the assault occasions actual bodily harm, is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(2A)  A person who, during a public disorder, assaults a police officer while in the execution of the officer’s duty, and by the assault occasions actual bodily harm, is liable to imprisonment for 9 years.
(3)  A person who by any means:
(a)  wounds or causes grievous bodily harm to a police officer while in the execution of the officer’s duty, and
(b)  is reckless as to causing actual bodily harm to that officer or any other person,
is liable to imprisonment for 12 years.
(3A)  A person who by any means during a public disorder:
(a)  wounds or causes grievous bodily harm to a police officer while in the execution of the officer’s duty, and
(b)  is reckless as to causing actual bodily harm to that officer or any other person,
is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(4)  For the purposes of this section, an action is taken to be carried out in relation to a police officer while in the execution of the officer’s duty, even though the police officer is not on duty at the time, if it is carried out:
(a)  as a consequence of, or in retaliation for, actions undertaken by that police officer in the execution of the officer’s duty, or
(b)  because the officer is a police officer.
60A   Assault and other actions against law enforcement officers (other than police officers)
(1)  A person who assaults, throws a missile at, stalks, harasses or intimidates a law enforcement officer (other than a police officer) while in the execution of the officer’s duty, although no actual bodily harm is occasioned to the officer, is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  A person who assaults a law enforcement officer (other than a police officer) while in the execution of the officer’s duty, and by the assault occasions actual bodily harm, is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(3)  A person who by any means:
(a)  wounds or causes grievous bodily harm to a law enforcement officer (other than a police officer) while in the execution of the officer’s duty, and
(b)  is reckless as to causing actual bodily harm to that officer or any other person,
is liable to imprisonment for 12 years.
(4)  For the purposes of this section, an action is taken to be carried out in relation to a law enforcement officer while in the execution of the officer’s duty, even though the officer is not on duty at the time, if it is carried out:
(a)  as a consequence of, or in retaliation for, actions undertaken by that officer in the execution of the officer’s duty, or
(b)  because the officer is a law enforcement officer.
60B   Actions against third parties connected with law enforcement officers
(1)  A person who assaults, stalks, harasses or intimidates any person with whom a law enforcement officer has a domestic relationship, with the intention of causing the law enforcement officer to fear physical or mental harm:
(a)  as a consequence of, or in retaliation for, actions undertaken by the law enforcement officer in the execution of the officer’s duty, or
(b)  because the law enforcement officer is a law enforcement officer,
is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  A person who obtains personal information about a person with whom a law enforcement officer has a domestic relationship, with the intention of using or permitting the use of the information to cause the officer to fear physical or mental harm:
(a)  as a consequence of, or in retaliation for, actions undertaken by the law enforcement officer in the execution of the officer’s duty, or
(b)  because the law enforcement officer is a law enforcement officer,
is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
(3)  For the purposes of this section, causing a law enforcement officer to fear physical or mental harm includes causing the officer to fear physical or mental harm to another person with whom he or she has a domestic relationship.
(4)  For the purposes of this section, a person intends to cause fear of physical or mental harm if he or she knows that the conduct is likely to cause fear in the other person.
(5)  For the purposes of this section, the prosecution is not required to prove that the person alleged to have been assaulted, stalked, harassed or intimidated, or the law enforcement officer, actually feared physical or mental harm.
(6)  In this section, domestic relationship has the same meaning as in the Crimes (Domestic and Personal Violence) Act 2007.
60C   Obtaining of personal information about law enforcement officers
A person who obtains personal information about a law enforcement officer, with the intention of using or permitting the use of the information for the purpose of assaulting, stalking, harassing, intimidating, or otherwise harming, the officer:
(a)  as a consequence of, or in retaliation for, actions undertaken by the law enforcement officer in the execution of the officer’s duty, or
(b)  because the officer is a law enforcement officer,
is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
Division 8B Assaults etc at schools
60D   Definitions
(1)  In this Division:
member of staff of a school includes a person who performs voluntary work for the school.
school means:
(a)  an infants school, primary school or secondary school (however described), and
(b)  a child care facility for children under school age.
school premises includes parks and other community premises that are used by a school (but only while they are being used for the purposes of the school).
school student includes a child attending a child care facility.
(2)  For the purposes of this Division, a school student or member of staff of a school is taken to be attending a school:
(a)  while the student or member of staff is on school premises for the purposes of school work or duty (even if not engaged in school work or duty at the time), or
(b)  while the student or member of staff is on school premises for the purposes of before school or after school child care, or
(c)  while entering or leaving school premises in connection with school work or duty or before school or after school care.
60E   Assaults etc at schools
(1)  A person who assaults, stalks, harasses or intimidates any school student or member of staff of a school while the student or member of staff is attending a school, although no actual bodily harm is occasioned, is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  A person who assaults a school student or member of staff of a school while the student or member of staff is attending a school and by the assault occasions actual bodily harm, is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(3)  A person who by any means:
(a)  wounds or causes grievous bodily harm to a school student or member of staff of a school while the student or member of staff is attending a school, and
(b)  is reckless as to causing actual bodily harm to that student or member of staff or any other person,
is liable to imprisonment for 12 years.
(4)  A person who enters school premises with intent to commit an offence under another provision of this section is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
(5)  Nothing in subsection (1) applies to any reasonable disciplinary action taken by a member of staff of a school against a school student.
Division 9 Common assaults
61   Common assault prosecuted by indictment
Whosoever assaults any person, although not occasioning actual bodily harm, shall be liable to imprisonment for two years.
Division 9A Defence of lawful correction
61AA   Defence of lawful correction
(1)  In criminal proceedings brought against a person arising out of the application of physical force to a child, it is a defence that the force was applied for the purpose of the punishment of the child, but only if:
(a)  the physical force was applied by the parent of the child or by a person acting for a parent of the child, and
(b)  the application of that physical force was reasonable having regard to the age, health, maturity or other characteristics of the child, the nature of the alleged misbehaviour or other circumstances.
(2)  The application of physical force, unless that force could reasonably be considered trivial or negligible in all the circumstances, is not reasonable if the force is applied:
(a)  to any part of the head or neck of the child, or
(b)  to any other part of the body of the child in such a way as to be likely to cause harm to the child that lasts for more than a short period.
(3)  Subsection (2) does not limit the circumstances in which the application of physical force is not reasonable.
(4)  This section does not derogate from or affect any defence at common law (other than to modify the defence of lawful correction).
(5)  Nothing in this section alters the common law concerning the management, control or restraint of a child by means of physical contact or force for purposes other than punishment.
(6)  In this section:
child means a person under 18 years of age.
parent of a child means a person having all the duties, powers, responsibilities and authority in respect of the child which, by law, parents have in relation to their children.
person acting for a parent of a child means a person:
(a)  who:
(i)  is a step-parent of the child, a de facto partner of a parent of the child, a relative (by blood or marriage) of a parent of the child or a person to whom the parent has entrusted the care and management of the child, and
(ii)  is authorised by a parent of the child to use physical force to punish the child, or
(b)  who, in the case of a child who is an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (within the meaning of the Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998), is recognised by the Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander community to which the child belongs as being an appropriate person to exercise special responsibilities in relation to the child.
Note.
 “De facto partner” is defined in section 21C of the Interpretation Act 1987.
(7)  This section does not apply to proceedings arising out of an application of physical force to a child if the application of that force occurred before the commencement of this section.
(8)  The Attorney General is to review this section to determine whether its provisions continue to be appropriate for securing the policy objectives of the section. The review is to be undertaken as soon as possible after the period of 3 years from the commencement of this section. A report on the outcome of the review is to be tabled in each House of Parliament within 6 months after the end of the period of 3 years.
Division 10 Sexual offences against adults and children
Subdivision 1 Interpretation
61A–61G   (Repealed)
61H   Definitions
(1)  In this Division:
cognitive impairment—see section 61HD.
sexual act—see section 61HC.
sexual intercourse—see section 61HA.
sexual touching—see section 61HB.
(1A)    (Repealed)
(2)  For the purposes of this Division, a person is under the authority of another person if the person is in the care, or under the supervision or authority, of the other person.
(3)  For the purposes of this Act, a person who incites another person to carry out sexual touching or a sexual act, as referred to in a provision of Subdivision 3, 4, 6, 7 or 11, is taken to commit an offence on the other person.
61HA   Meaning of “sexual intercourse”
For the purposes of this Division, sexual intercourse means:
(a)  sexual connection occasioned by the penetration to any extent of the genitalia (including a surgically constructed vagina) of a female person or the anus of any person by:
(i)  any part of the body of another person, or
(ii)  any object manipulated by another person,
except where the penetration is carried out for proper medical purposes, or
(b)  sexual connection occasioned by the introduction of any part of the penis of a person into the mouth of another person, or
(c)  cunnilingus, or
(d)  the continuation of sexual intercourse as defined in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).
61HB   Meaning of “sexual touching”
(1)  For the purposes of this Division, sexual touching means a person touching another person:
(a)  with any part of the body or with anything else, or
(b)  through anything, including anything worn by the person doing the touching or by the person being touched,
in circumstances where a reasonable person would consider the touching to be sexual.
(2)  The matters to be taken into account in deciding whether a reasonable person would consider touching to be sexual include:
(a)  whether the area of the body touched or doing the touching is the person’s genital area or anal area or (in the case of a female person, or transgender or intersex person identifying as female) the person’s breasts, whether or not the breasts are sexually developed, or
(b)  whether the person doing the touching does so for the purpose of obtaining sexual arousal or sexual gratification, or
(c)  whether any other aspect of the touching (including the circumstances in which it is done) makes it sexual.
(3)  Touching done for genuine medical or hygienic purposes is not sexual touching.
61HC   Meaning of “sexual act”
(1)  For the purposes of this Division, sexual act means an act (other than sexual touching) carried out in circumstances where a reasonable person would consider the act to be sexual.
(2)  The matters to be taken into account in deciding whether a reasonable person would consider an act to be sexual include:
(a)  whether the area of the body involved in the act is a person’s genital area or anal area or (in the case of a female person, or transgender or intersex person identifying as female) the person’s breasts, whether or not the breasts are sexually developed, or
(b)  whether the person carrying out the act does so for the purpose of obtaining sexual arousal or sexual gratification, or
(c)  whether any other aspect of the act (including the circumstances in which it is carried out) makes it sexual.
(3)  An act carried out for genuine medical or hygienic purposes is not a sexual act.
61HD   Meaning of “cognitive impairment”
For the purposes of this Division, a person has a cognitive impairment if the person has:
(a)  an intellectual disability, or
(b)  a developmental disorder (including an autistic spectrum disorder), or
(c)  a neurological disorder, or
(d)  dementia, or
(e)  a severe mental illness, or
(f)  a brain injury,
that results in the person requiring supervision or social habilitation in connection with daily life activities.
61HE   Consent in relation to sexual offences
(1) Offences to which section applies This section applies for the purposes of the offences, or attempts to commit the offences, under sections 61I, 61J, 61JA, 61KC, 61KD, 61KE and 61KF.
(2) Meaning of “consent” A person consents to a sexual activity if the person freely and voluntarily agrees to the sexual activity.
(3) Knowledge about consent A person who without the consent of the other person (the alleged victim) engages in a sexual activity with or towards the alleged victim, incites the alleged victim to engage in a sexual activity or incites a third person to engage in a sexual activity with or towards the alleged victim, knows that the alleged victim does not consent to the sexual activity if:
(a)  the person knows that the alleged victim does not consent to the sexual activity, or
(b)  the person is reckless as to whether the alleged victim consents to the sexual activity, or
(c)  the person has no reasonable grounds for believing that the alleged victim consents to the sexual activity.
(4)  For the purpose of making any such finding, the trier of fact must have regard to all the circumstances of the case:
(a)  including any steps taken by the person to ascertain whether the alleged victim consents to the sexual activity, but
(b)  not including any self-induced intoxication of the person.
(5) Negation of consent A person does not consent to a sexual activity:
(a)  if the person does not have the capacity to consent to the sexual activity, including because of age or cognitive incapacity, or
(b)  if the person does not have the opportunity to consent to the sexual activity because the person is unconscious or asleep, or
(c)  if the person consents to the sexual activity because of threats of force or terror (whether the threats are against, or the terror is instilled in, that person or any other person), or
(d)  if the person consents to the sexual activity because the person is unlawfully detained.
(6)  A person who consents to a sexual activity with or from another person under any of the following mistaken beliefs does not consent to the sexual activity:
(a)  a mistaken belief as to the identity of the other person,
(b)  a mistaken belief that the other person is married to the person,
(c)  a mistaken belief that the sexual activity is for health or hygienic purposes,
(d)  any other mistaken belief about the nature of the activity induced by fraudulent means.
(7)  For the purposes of subsection (3), the other person knows that the person does not consent to the sexual activity if the other person knows the person consents to the sexual activity under such a mistaken belief.
(8)  The grounds on which it may be established that a person does not consent to a sexual activity include:
(a)  if the person consents to the sexual activity while substantially intoxicated by alcohol or any drug, or
(b)  if the person consents to the sexual activity because of intimidatory or coercive conduct, or other threat, that does not involve a threat of force, or
(c)  if the person consents to the sexual activity because of the abuse of a position of authority or trust.
(9)  A person who does not offer actual physical resistance to a sexual activity is not, by reason only of that fact, to be regarded as consenting to the sexual activity.
(10)  This section does not limit the grounds on which it may be established that a person does not consent to a sexual activity.
(11)  In this section:
sexual activity means sexual intercourse, sexual touching or a sexual act.
Subdivision 2 Sexual assault and assault with intent to have sexual intercourse
61I   Sexual assault
Any person who has sexual intercourse with another person without the consent of the other person and who knows that the other person does not consent to the sexual intercourse is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
61J   Aggravated sexual assault
(1)  Any person who has sexual intercourse with another person without the consent of the other person and in circumstances of aggravation and who knows that the other person does not consent to the sexual intercourse is liable to imprisonment for 20 years.
(2)  In this section, circumstances of aggravation means circumstances in which:
(a)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, the alleged offender intentionally or recklessly inflicts actual bodily harm on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby, or
(b)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, the alleged offender threatens to inflict actual bodily harm on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby by means of an offensive weapon or instrument, or
(b1)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, the alleged offender threatens to inflict grievous bodily harm or wounding on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby, or
(c)  the alleged offender is in the company of another person or persons, or
(d)  the alleged victim is under the age of 16 years, or
(e)  the alleged victim is (whether generally or at the time of the commission of the offence) under the authority of the alleged offender, or
(f)  the alleged victim has a serious physical disability, or
(g)  the alleged victim has a cognitive impairment, or
(h)  the alleged offender breaks and enters into any dwelling-house or other building with the intention of committing the offence or any other serious indictable offence, or
(i)  the alleged offender deprives the alleged victim of his or her liberty for a period before or after the commission of the offence.
(3)  In this section, building has the same meaning as it does in Division 4 of Part 4.
61JA   Aggravated sexual assault in company
(1)  A person:
(a)  who has sexual intercourse with another person without the consent of the other person and who knows that the other person does not consent to the sexual intercourse, and
(b)  who is in the company of another person or persons, and
(c)  who:
(i)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, intentionally or recklessly inflicts actual bodily harm on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby, or
(ii)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, threatens to inflict actual bodily harm on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby by means of an offensive weapon or instrument, or
(iii)  deprives the alleged victim of his or her liberty for a period before or after the commission of the offence,
is liable to imprisonment for life.
(2)  A person sentenced to imprisonment for life for an offence under this section is to serve that sentence for the term of the person’s natural life.
(3)  Nothing in this section affects the operation of section 21 of the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (which authorises the passing of a lesser sentence than imprisonment for life).
(4)  Nothing in this section affects the prerogative of mercy.
61K   Assault with intent to have sexual intercourse
Any person who, with intent to have sexual intercourse with another person:
(a)  intentionally or recklessly inflicts actual bodily harm on the other person or a third person who is present or nearby, or
(b)  threatens to inflict actual bodily harm on the other person or a third person who is present or nearby by means of an offensive weapon or instrument,
is liable to imprisonment for 20 years.
61KA   Offender married to victim
The fact that a person is married to a person:
(a)  upon whom an offence under section 61I, 61J, 61JA or 61K is alleged to have been committed is no bar to the firstmentioned person being convicted of the offence, or
(b)  upon whom an offence under any of those sections is alleged to have been attempted is no bar to the firstmentioned person being convicted of the attempt.
61KB   Circumstances of certain sexual offences to be considered in passing sentence
Where a person is convicted of:
(a)  both an offence under section 61I and an offence under section 61K, or
(b)  both an offence under section 61J and an offence under section 61K, or
(c)  both an offence under section 61JA and an offence under section 61K,
whether at the same time or at different times, the Judge passing sentence on the person in respect of the two convictions or the later of the two convictions is required, if it appears that the two offences arose substantially out of the one set of circumstances, to take that fact into account in passing sentence.
Subdivision 3 Sexual touching
61KC   Sexual touching
Any person (the alleged offender) who without the consent of another person (the alleged victim) and knowing that the alleged victim does not consent intentionally:
(a)  sexually touches the alleged victim, or
(b)  incites the alleged victim to sexually touch the alleged offender, or
(c)  incites a third person to sexually touch the alleged victim, or
(d)  incites the alleged victim to sexually touch a third person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
61KD   Aggravated sexual touching
(1)  Any person (the alleged offender) who without the consent of another person (the alleged victim) and knowing that the alleged victim does not consent and in circumstances of aggravation intentionally:
(a)  sexually touches the alleged victim, or
(b)  incites the alleged victim to sexually touch the alleged offender, or
(c)  incites a third person to sexually touch the alleged victim, or
(d)  incites the alleged victim to sexually touch a third person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 7 years.
(2)  In this section, circumstances of aggravation means circumstances in which:
(a)  the alleged offender is in the company of another person or persons, or
(b)  the alleged victim is (whether generally or at the time of the commission of the offence) under the authority of the alleged offender, or
(c)  the alleged victim has a serious physical disability, or
(d)  the alleged victim has a cognitive impairment.
Subdivision 4 Sexual act
61KE   Sexual act
Any person (the alleged offender) who without the consent of another person (the alleged victim) and knowing that the alleged victim does not consent intentionally:
(a)  carries out a sexual act with or towards the alleged victim, or
(b)  incites the alleged victim to carry out a sexual act with or towards the alleged offender, or
(c)  incites a third person to carry out a sexual act with or towards the alleged victim, or
(d)  incites the alleged victim to carry out a sexual act with or towards a third person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 18 months.
61KF   Aggravated sexual act
(1)  Any person (the alleged offender) who without the consent of another person (the alleged victim) and knowing that the alleged victim does not consent and in circumstances of aggravation intentionally:
(a)  carries out a sexual act with or towards the alleged victim, or
(b)  incites the alleged victim to carry out a sexual act with or towards the alleged offender, or
(c)  incites a third person to carry out a sexual act with or towards the alleged victim, or
(d)  incites the alleged victim to carry out a sexual act with or towards a third person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 3 years.
(2)  In this section, circumstances of aggravation means circumstances in which:
(a)  the alleged offender is in the company of another person or persons, or
(b)  the alleged victim is (whether generally or at the time of the commission of the offence) under the authority of the alleged offender, or
(c)  the alleged victim has a serious physical disability, or
(d)  the alleged victim has a cognitive impairment.
61L–61P   (Repealed)
61Q   
(Renumbered as section 80AB)
61R   (Repealed)
61S   
(Renumbered as section 80AC)
61T, 61U   
(Renumbered as sections 61KA, 61KB)
62   (Repealed)
63   
(Renumbered as section 80AD)
64   
(Renumbered as clause 51 of Schedule 11)
65–66   (Repealed)
Subdivision 5 Children—sexual assault
66A   Sexual intercourse—child under 10
(1)  Any person who has sexual intercourse with a child who is under the age of 10 years is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for life.
(2)  A person sentenced to imprisonment for life for an offence under this section is to serve that sentence for the term of the person’s natural life.
(3)  Nothing in this section affects the operation of section 21 of the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (which authorises the passing of a lesser sentence than imprisonment for life).
(4)  Nothing in this section affects the prerogative of mercy.
66B   Attempting, or assaulting with intent, to have sexual intercourse with child under 10
Any person who attempts to have sexual intercourse with a child who is under the age of 10 years, or assaults a child who is under the age of 10 years with intent to have sexual intercourse, shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
66C   Sexual intercourse—child between 10 and 16
(1) Child between 10 and 14 Any person who has sexual intercourse with a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 14 years is liable to imprisonment for 16 years.
(2) Child between 10 and 14—aggravated offence Any person who has sexual intercourse with a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 14 years in circumstances of aggravation is liable to imprisonment for 20 years.
(3) Child between 14 and 16 Any person who has sexual intercourse with a child who is of or above the age of 14 years and under the age of 16 years is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(4) Child between 14 and 16—aggravated offence Any person who has sexual intercourse with a child who is of or above the age of 14 years and under the age of 16 years in circumstances of aggravation is liable to imprisonment for 12 years.
(5)  In this section, circumstances of aggravation means circumstances in which:
(a)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, the alleged offender intentionally or recklessly inflicts actual bodily harm on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby, or
(b)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, the alleged offender threatens to inflict actual bodily harm on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby by means of an offensive weapon or instrument, or
(c)  the alleged offender is in the company of another person or persons, or
(d)  the alleged victim is (whether generally or at the time of the commission of the offence) under the authority of the alleged offender, or
(e)  the alleged victim has a serious physical disability, or
(f)  the alleged victim has a cognitive impairment, or
(g)  the alleged offender took advantage of the alleged victim being under the influence of alcohol or a drug in order to commit the offence, or
(h)  the alleged offender deprives the alleged victim of his or her liberty for a period before or after the commission of the offence, or
(i)  the alleged offender breaks and enters into any dwelling-house or other building with the intention of committing the offence or any other serious indictable offence.
66D   Assault with intent to have sexual intercourse—child between 10 and 16
Any person who assaults a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years with intent to commit an offence under section 66C on the child is liable to the penalty provided for the commission of that offence.
Subdivision 6 Children—sexual touching
66DA   Sexual touching—child under 10
Any person who intentionally:
(a)  sexually touches a child who is under the age of 10 years, or
(b)  incites a child who is under the age of 10 years to sexually touch the person, or
(c)  incites a child who is under the age of 10 years to sexually touch another person, or
(d)  incites another person to sexually touch a child who is under the age of 10 years,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 16 years.
66DB   Sexual touching—child between 10 and 16
Any person who intentionally:
(a)  sexually touches a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years, or
(b)  incites a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years to sexually touch the person, or
(c)  incites a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years to sexually touch another person, or
(d)  incites another person to sexually touch a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
Subdivision 7 Children—sexual act
66DC   Sexual act—child under 10
Any person who intentionally:
(a)  carries out a sexual act with or towards a child who is under the age of 10 years, or
(b)  incites a child who is under the age of 10 years to carry out a sexual act with or towards the person, or
(c)  incites a child who is under the age of 10 years to carry out a sexual act with or towards another person, or
(d)  incites another person to carry out a sexual act with or towards a child who is under the age of 10 years,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 7 years.
66DD   Sexual act—child between 10 and 16
Any person who intentionally:
(a)  carries out a sexual act with or towards a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years, or
(b)  incites a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years to carry out a sexual act with or towards the person, or
(c)  incites a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years to carry out a sexual act with or towards another person, or
(d)  incites another person to carry out a sexual act with or towards a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 2 years.
66DE   Aggravated sexual act—child between 10 and 16
(1)  Any person who in circumstances of aggravation intentionally:
(a)  carries out a sexual act with or towards a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years, or
(b)  incites a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years to carry out a sexual act with or towards the person, or
(c)  incites a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years to carry out a sexual act with or towards another person, or
(d)  incites another person to carry out a sexual act with or towards a child who is of or above the age of 10 years and under the age of 16 years,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  In this section, circumstances of aggravation means circumstances in which:
(a)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, the alleged offender intentionally or recklessly inflicts actual bodily harm on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby, or
(b)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, the alleged offender threatens to inflict actual bodily harm on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby by means of an offensive weapon or instrument, or
(c)  the alleged offender is in the company of another person or persons, or
(d)  the alleged victim is (whether generally or at the time of the commission of the offence) under the authority of the alleged offender, or
(e)  the alleged victim has a serious physical disability, or
(f)  the alleged victim has a cognitive impairment, or
(g)  the alleged offender took advantage of the alleged victim being under the influence of alcohol or a drug in order to commit the offence, or
(h)  the alleged offender deprives the alleged victim of his or her liberty for a period before or after the commission of the offence, or
(i)  the alleged offender breaks and enters into any dwelling-house or other building with the intention of committing the offence or any other serious indictable offence.
66DF   Sexual act for production of child abuse material—child under 16
Any person who intentionally:
(a)  carries out a sexual act with or towards a child who is under the age of 16 years, or
(b)  incites a child who is under the age of 16 years to carry out a sexual act with or towards the person, or
(c)  incites a child who is under the age of 16 years to carry out a sexual act with or towards another person, or
(d)  incites another person to carry out a sexual act with or towards a child who is under the age of 16 years,
and who knows that the sexual act is being filmed for the purposes of the production of child abuse material, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
66E   (Repealed)
Subdivision 8 Children—persistent sexual abuse
66EA   Persistent sexual abuse of a child
(1)  An adult who maintains an unlawful sexual relationship with a child is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for life.
(2)  An unlawful sexual relationship is a relationship in which an adult engages in 2 or more unlawful sexual acts with or towards a child over any period.
(3)  It is immaterial that any of those unlawful sexual acts occurred outside New South Wales, so long as at least one of the unlawful sexual acts occurred in New South Wales.
(4)  In proceedings for an offence under this section, the prosecution:
(a)  is not required to allege the particulars of any unlawful sexual act that would be necessary if the act were charged as a separate offence, and
(b)  is required to allege the particulars of the period of time over which the unlawful sexual relationship existed.
(5)  In order for the accused to be convicted of an offence under this section:
(a)  the jury must be satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that the evidence establishes that an unlawful sexual relationship existed, and
(b)  the jury is not required to be satisfied of the particulars of any unlawful sexual act that it would have to be satisfied of if the act were charged as a separate offence, and
(c)  the members of the jury are not required to agree on which unlawful sexual acts constitute the unlawful sexual relationship.
(6)  In proceedings for an offence under this section, the judge must inform the jury of the requirements of subsection (5).
(7)  This section extends to a relationship that existed wholly or partly before the commencement of the relevant amendments, or the predecessor offence, if the acts engaged in by the accused were unlawful sexual acts during the period in which the relationship existed.
(8)  A court, when imposing a sentence for an offence under this section constituted by an unlawful sexual relationship that existed wholly or partly before the commencement of the relevant amendments, must take into account (but is not limited by) the maximum penalty for the unlawful sexual acts engaged in by the accused during the period in which the unlawful sexual relationship existed.
(9)  A person who has been convicted or acquitted of an unlawful sexual act in relation to a child cannot be convicted of an offence under this section in relation to the same child if the unlawful sexual act of which the person has been convicted or acquitted is one of the unlawful sexual acts that are alleged to constitute the unlawful sexual relationship.
(10)  A person who has been convicted or acquitted of an offence under this section for having an unlawful sexual relationship with a child cannot be convicted of an unlawful sexual act in relation to the same child if the occasion on which the unlawful sexual act is alleged to have occurred is during the period over which the unlawful sexual relationship was alleged to have existed. This subsection does not prevent an alternative verdict under subsection (13).
(11)  A person who has been convicted or acquitted of a predecessor offence in relation to a child cannot be convicted of an offence under this section of having an unlawful sexual relationship with the same child if the period of the alleged unlawful sexual relationship includes any part of the period during which the person was alleged to have committed the predecessor offence.
(12)  For the purposes of subsections (9)–(11), a person ceases to be regarded as having been convicted for an offence if the conviction is quashed or set aside.
(13)  If on the trial of a person charged with an offence under this section the jury is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has, in respect of any of the occasions relied on as evidence of the commission of the offence under this section, committed an unlawful sexual act, the jury may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of that unlawful sexual act. The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
(14)  Proceedings for an offence under this section may only be instituted by or with the approval of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
(15)  In this section:
adult means a person who is of or above the age of 18 years.
child means a person who is under the age of 16 years.
predecessor offence means this section before its substitution by the Criminal Legislation Amendment (Child Sexual Abuse) Act 2018.
relevant amendments means the substitution of this section by the Criminal Legislation Amendment (Child Sexual Abuse) Act 2018.
unlawful sexual act means any act that constitutes, or would constitute (if particulars of the time and place at which the act took place were sufficiently particularised), any of the following offences:
(a)  an offence under section 61I, 61J, 61JA, 61K, 61KC, 61KD, 61KE, 61KF, 66A, 66B, 66C, 66D, 66DA, 66DB, 66DC, 66DD, 66DE, 66DF, 66F or 80A,
(b)  an offence under a provision of this Act set out in Column 1 of Schedule 1A,
(c)  an offence of attempting to commit an offence referred to in paragraph (a) or (b),
(d)  an offence under a previous enactment that is substantially similar to an offence referred to in paragraphs (a)–(c),
(e)  an offence under the law of a place outside New South Wales that would, if it had been committed in New South Wales, be an offence referred to in paragraphs (a)–(d).
Subdivision 9 Children—procurement and grooming
66EB   Procuring or grooming child under 16 for unlawful sexual activity
(1) Definitions In this section:
adult person means a person who is of or over the age of 18 years.
child means a person who is under the age of 16 years.
conduct includes:
(a)  communicating in person or by telephone, the internet or other means, or
(b)  providing any computer image, video or publication.
unlawful sexual activity means an act that constitutes an offence under this Division or Division 10A, 15 or 15A (or, in the case of an act occurring outside this State, that would constitute such an offence if it occurred in this State).
(2) Procuring children An adult person who intentionally procures a child for unlawful sexual activity with that or any other person is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty:
(a)  in the case of a child who is under the age of 14 years—imprisonment for 15 years, or
(b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 12 years.
(2A) Meeting child following grooming An adult person:
(a)  who intentionally meets a child, or travels with the intention of meeting a child, whom the adult person has groomed for sexual purposes, and
(b)  who does so with the intention of procuring the child for unlawful sexual activity with that adult person or any other person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty:
(a)  in the case of a child who is under the age of 14 years—imprisonment for 15 years, or
(b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 12 years.
(2B)  For the purposes of subsection (2A), a child has been groomed for sexual purposes by an adult person if, on one or more previous occasions, the adult person has engaged in conduct that exposed the child to indecent material.
(3) Grooming children An adult person:
(a)  who engages in any conduct that exposes a child to indecent material or provides a child with an intoxicating substance or with any financial or other material benefit, and
(b)  who does so with the intention of making it easier to procure the child for unlawful sexual activity with that or any other person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty:
(a)  in the case of a child who is under the age of 14 years—imprisonment for 12 years, or
(b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 10 years.
(4) Unlawful sexual activity need not be particularised In any proceedings for an offence against this section, it is necessary to prove that the child was or was to be procured for unlawful sexual activity, but it is not necessary to specify or to prove any particular unlawful sexual activity.
(5) Fictitious children A reference in this section to a child includes a reference to a person who pretends to be a child if the accused believed that the person was a child. In that case, a reference in this section:
(a)  to unlawful sexual activity includes a reference to anything that would be unlawful sexual activity if the person were a child, and
(b)  to the age of the child is a reference to the age that the accused believed the person to be.
(6) Charge for aggravated offence The higher maximum penalty under subsection (2), (2A) or (3) in the case of a child under the age of 14 years does not apply unless the age of the child is set out in the charge for the offence.
(7) Defence It is a defence in proceedings for an offence against this section if the accused reasonably believed that the other person was not a child.
(8) Alternative verdict If on the trial of a person charged with an offence against subsection (2) or (2A) the jury is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has committed an offence against subsection (3), the jury may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of an offence against subsection (3). The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
66EC   Grooming a person for unlawful sexual activity with a child under the person’s authority
(1)  In this section:
adult person means a person who is of or above the age of 18 years.
child means a person who is under the age of 16 years.
unlawful sexual activity means an act that constitutes an offence under this Division or Division 10A, 15 or 15A (or, in the case of an act occurring outside this State, that would constitute such an offence if it occurred in this State).
(2)  An adult person:
(a)  who provides a person (other than a child) with any financial or other material benefit, and
(b)  who does so with the intention of making it easier to procure a child who is under the authority of the person for unlawful sexual activity with the adult person or any other person,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty:
(a)  in the case of a child who is under the age of 14 years—imprisonment for 6 years, or
(b)  in any other case—imprisonment for 5 years.
(3)  Proceedings for an offence under this section may only be instituted by or with the approval of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
Subdivision 10 Sexual offences—cognitive impairment
66F   Sexual offences—cognitive impairment
(1) Meaning of “person responsible for care” For the purposes of this section, a person is responsible for the care of a person who has a cognitive impairment if the person provides care to that person:
(a)  at a facility at which persons with a cognitive impairment are detained, reside or attend, or
(b)  at the home of that person in the course of a program under which any such facility or other government or community organisation provides care to persons with a cognitive impairment.
The care of a person with a cognitive impairment includes voluntary care, health professional care, education, home care and supervision.
(2) Sexual intercourse: person responsible for care A person:
(a)  who has sexual intercourse with a person who has a cognitive impairment, and
(b)  who is responsible for the care of that person (whether generally or at the time of the sexual intercourse),
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 10 years.
(3) Sexual intercourse: taking advantage of impairment A person who has sexual intercourse with a person who has a cognitive impairment, with the intention of taking advantage of that person’s cognitive impairment, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 8 years.
(4)    (Repealed)
(5) Consent not a defence for sexual intercourse The consent of a person who has a cognitive impairment is not a defence to a charge for an offence under subsection (2) or (3) (or under section 344A in connection with such an offence).
(6) Consent not a defence for sexual touching or sexual act The consent of a person who has a cognitive impairment is not a defence to a charge for an offence under section 61KC, 61KD, 61KE or 61KF (or under section 344A in connection with such an offence) if:
(a)  the accused was responsible for the care of that person (whether generally or at the time of the conduct constituting the offence), or
(b)  the accused engaged in the conduct constituting the offence with the intention of taking advantage of that person’s cognitive impairment.
(7) Defences It is a defence to a charge for an offence under subsection (2) or (3) (or under section 344A in connection with such an offence) or an offence referred to in subsection (6) in which the prosecution relies on the operation of that subsection:
(a)  if, at the time of the conduct constituting the offence:
(i)  the accused did not know the person to whom the charge relates had a cognitive impairment, or
(ii)  the accused was married to the person to whom the charge relates or was the de facto partner of that person, or
(b)  if the act constituting the offence was carried out for any proper medical or hygienic purpose.
(8) Approval of Attorney General for prosecution A prosecution for any of the following offences may not be commenced without the approval of the Attorney General:
(a)  an offence under subsection (2) or (3) (or under section 344A in connection with such an offence),
(b)  an offence referred to in subsection (6) in which the prosecution relies on the operation of that subsection.
67, 68   (Repealed)
69   
(Renumbered as clause 52 of Schedule 11)
70   
(Renumbered as clause 53 of Schedule 11)
71–72A   (Repealed)
Subdivision 11 Sexual offences—young person under special care
72B   Definitions
In this Subdivision:
authorised carer has the same meaning as in the Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998.
member of the teaching staff of a school means:
(a)  a teacher at the school, or
(b)  the principal or a deputy principal at the school, or
(c)  any other person employed at the school who has students at the school under his or her care or authority.
young person means a person who is of or above the age of 16 years and under the age of 18 years.
73   Sexual intercourse—young person between 16 and 18 under special care
(1)  Any person who has sexual intercourse with a young person who:
(a)  is under his or her special care, and
(b)  is of or above the age of 16 years and under the age of 17 years,
is liable to imprisonment for 8 years.
(2)  Any person who has sexual intercourse with a young person who:
(a)  is under his or her special care, and
(b)  is of or above the age of 17 years and under the age of 18 years,
is liable to imprisonment for 4 years.
(3)  For the purposes of this section, a young person (the victim) is under the special care of another person (the offender) if, and only if:
(a)  the offender is the step-parent, guardian or authorised carer of the victim or the de facto partner of a parent, guardian or authorised carer of the victim, or
(b)  the offender is a member of the teaching staff of the school at which the victim is a student, or
(c)  the offender has an established personal relationship with the victim in connection with the provision of religious, sporting, musical or other instruction to the victim, or
(d)  the offender is a custodial officer of an institution of which the victim is an inmate, or
(e)  the offender is a health professional and the victim is a patient of the health professional.
(4)    (Repealed)
(5)  A person does not commit an offence under this section if the person and the young person to whom the charge relates were, at the time the offence is alleged to have been committed, married to each other.
(6)    (Repealed)
73A   Sexual touching—young person between 16 and 18 under special care
(1)  Any person who intentionally:
(a)  sexually touches a young person under the person’s special care, or
(b)  incites a young person under the person’s special care to sexually touch the person, or
(c)  incites a young person under the person’s special care to sexually touch another person, or
(d)  incites another person to sexually touch a young person under the first person’s special care,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty:
(a)  in the case of a young person who is of or above the age of 16 years and under the age of 17 years—imprisonment for 4 years, or
(b)  in the case of a young person who is of or above the age of 17 years and under the age of 18 years—imprisonment for 2 years.
(2)  A person does not commit an offence under this section if the person and the young person to whom the charge relates were, at the time the offence is alleged to have been committed, married to each other.
(3)  For the purposes of this section, a young person (the victim) is under the special care of another person (the offender) if, and only if:
(a)  the offender is the parent, grandparent, step-parent, guardian or authorised carer of the victim or the de facto partner of a parent, guardian or authorised carer of the victim, or
(b)  the offender is a member of the teaching staff of the school at which the victim is a student, or
(c)  the offender has an established personal relationship with the victim in connection with the provision of religious, sporting, musical or other instruction to the victim, or
(d)  the offender is a custodial officer of an institution of which the victim is an inmate, or
(e)  the offender is a health professional and the victim is a patient of the health professional.
74–76A   (Repealed)
77   
(Renumbered as section 80AE)
77A, 78   (Repealed)
Subdivision 12 Incest
78A   Incest
(1)  Any person who has sexual intercourse with a close family member who is of or above the age of 16 years is liable to imprisonment for 8 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, a close family member is a parent, son, daughter, sibling (including a half-brother or half-sister), grandparent or grandchild, being such a family member from birth.
78B   Incest attempts
Any person who attempts to commit an offence under section 78A is liable to imprisonment for two years.
78C   Defences
(1)  It shall be a sufficient defence to a charge under section 78A or section 78B that the person charged did not know that the person with whom the offence is alleged to have been committed was related to him or her, as alleged.
(2)  It shall be no defence to a charge under section 78A or section 78B that the person with whom the offence is alleged to have been committed consented thereto.
78D   (Repealed)
78E   
(Renumbered as clause 54 of Schedule 11)
78F   Sanction of Attorney-General
(1)  No prosecution for an offence under sections 78A or 78B shall be commenced without the sanction of the Attorney-General.
(2)    (Repealed)
78G–78S   (Repealed)
78T   
(Renumbered as clause 55 of Schedule 11)
Subdivision 13 Bestiality
79   Bestiality
Any person who commits an act of bestiality with any animal shall be liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
80   Attempt to commit bestiality
Any person who attempts to commit an act of bestiality with any animal shall be liable to imprisonment for five years.
Subdivision 14 Sexual assault by forced self-manipulation
80A   Sexual assault by forced self-manipulation
(1)  In this section:
circumstances of aggravation means circumstances in which:
(a)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, the alleged offender intentionally or recklessly inflicts actual bodily harm on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby, or
(b)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, the alleged offender threatens to inflict actual bodily harm on the alleged victim or any other person who is present or nearby by means of an offensive weapon or instrument, or
(c)  the alleged offender is in the company of another person or persons, or
(d)  the alleged victim is under the age of 16 years, or
(e)  the alleged victim is (whether generally or at the time of the commission of the offence) under the authority of the alleged offender, or
(f)  the alleged victim has a serious physical disability, or
(g)  the alleged victim has a cognitive impairment.
self-manipulation means the penetration of the vagina (including a surgically constructed vagina) or anus of any person by an object manipulated by the person, except where the penetration is carried out for proper medical or other proper purposes.
threat means:
(a)  a threat of physical force, or
(b)  intimidatory or coercive conduct, or other threat, which does not involve a threat of physical force.
(2)  Any person who compels another person to engage in self-manipulation, by means of a threat that the other person could not reasonably be expected to resist, is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(2A)  Any person who compels another person to engage in self-manipulation:
(a)  by means of a threat that the other person could not reasonably be expected to resist, and
(b)  in circumstances of aggravation,
is liable to imprisonment for 20 years.
(3)  A person does not commit an offence under this section unless the person knows that the other person engages in the self-manipulation as a result of the threat.
Subdivision 15 Miscellaneous
80AA   Referral to child protection agency
On conviction of a person for an offence under this Division, the court may refer the matter to an appropriate child protection agency if the person against whom or with whom the offence was committed is under the authority of the offender.
80AB   Alternative verdicts
(1) Question of aggravation If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 61J, 61KD or 61KF the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 61I, 61KC or 61KE, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(1A) Question of aggravation in company If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 61JA the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 61I or 61J, it may find the person not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(2) Question of consent regarding alleged victim under 16 If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 61I the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 66C (3) or 66C (4), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(3) Question of consent or authority regarding alleged victim under 16 If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 61J or 61JA the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 66A or 66C, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(4) Question of consent regarding incest If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 61I or 61J the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 78A or 78B, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(5) Question of consent regarding cognitive impairment If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 61I, 61J or 61JA, the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 66F, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(6) Question of whether offence committed for purposes of production of child abuse material If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 66DF the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 66DC or 66DD, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(7)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 66A the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 66B, 66C (1), (2), (3) or (4) or 66D, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under section 66B, 66C (1), (2), (3) or (4) or 66D. The accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(8)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 66C (2) or (4) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 66C (1) or (3), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under section 66C (1) or (3). The accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(9)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 66C (1) or (2) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 66C (3) or (4), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under section 66C (3) or (4). The accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(10)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 66C the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 66D, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under section 66D. The accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(11)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 66A, 66B, 66C or 66D the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 66DA or 66DB, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under section 66DA or 66DB. The accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
80AC   Offenders who are minors
(1)  For the purposes of any offence, a person is not, by reason only of age, to be presumed incapable of having sexual intercourse with another person or of having an intent to have sexual intercourse with another person.
(2)  Subsection (1) does not affect the operation of any law relating to the age at which a child can be convicted of an offence.
80AD   Common law offences of rape and attempted rape abolished
(1)  The common law offences of rape and attempted rape are abolished.
(2)  Parts 1A, 1 and 19 of Schedule 11 make provision with respect to rape and other former sexual offences.
80AE   Consent no defence in certain cases
(1)  The consent of the child or other person to whom the charge relates shall be no defence to a charge under section 61E (1A), (2) or (2A), 61M (2), 61N (1), 61O (1), (2) or (2A), 66A, 66B, 66C, 66D, 66DA, 66DB, 66DC, 66DD, 66DE, 66DF, 66EA, 66EB, 66EC, 67, 68, 71, 72, 72A, 73, 73A, 74 or 76A or, if the child to whom the charge relates was under the age of 16 years at the time the offence is alleged to have been committed, to a charge under section 61E (1), 61L, 61M (1) or 76.
(2)    (Repealed)
80AF   Uncertainty about time when sexual offence against child occurred
(1)  This section applies if:
(a)  it is uncertain as to when during a period conduct is alleged to have occurred, and
(b)  the victim of the alleged conduct was for the whole of that period a child, and
(c)  there was no time during that period that the alleged conduct, if proven, would not have constituted a sexual offence, and
(d)  because of a change in the law or a change in the age of the child during that period, the alleged conduct, if proven, would have constituted more than one sexual offence during that period.
(2)  In such a case, a person may be prosecuted in respect of the conduct under whichever of those sexual offences has the lesser maximum penalty regardless of when during that period the conduct actually occurred, and in prosecuting that offence:
(a)  any requirement to establish that the offence charged was in force is satisfied if the prosecution can establish that the offence was in force at some time during that period, and
(b)  any requirement to establish that the victim was of a particular age is satisfied if the prosecution can establish that the victim was of that age at some time during that period.
(3)  In this section:
child means a person who is under the age of 16 years.
sexual offence means the following offences regardless of when the offence occurred:
(a)  an offence under a provision of this Division or Division 10A, 10B, 15 or 15A,
(b)  an offence under a provision of this Act set out in Column 1 of Schedule 1A,
(c)  an offence (whether under section 344A or otherwise) of attempting to commit any offence referred to in paragraph (a) or (b),
(d)  an offence under a previous enactment that is substantially similar to an offence referred to in paragraphs (a)–(c).
80AG   Defence of similar age
(1)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence under section 66C (3), 66DB, 66DD, 73 or 73A if the alleged victim is of or above the age of 14 years and the age difference between the alleged victim and the accused person is no more than 2 years.
(2)  In any criminal proceedings in which the application of this section is raised, the prosecution has the onus of proving, beyond reasonable doubt, that the alleged victim was less than 14 years of age or that the difference in age between the alleged victim and the accused person is more than 2 years.
Division 10A Sexual servitude
80B   Meaning of “sexual servitude”
(1)  For the purposes of this Division, sexual servitude is the condition of a person who provides sexual services and who, because of the use of force or threats:
(a)  is not free to cease providing sexual services, or
(b)  is not free to leave the place or area where the person provides sexual services.
(2)  In this section:
sexual service means the commercial use or display of the body of the person providing the service for the sexual arousal or sexual gratification of others.
threat means:
(a)  a threat of force, or
(b)  a threat to cause a person’s deportation, or
(c)  a threat of any other detrimental action unless there are reasonable grounds for the threat of that action in connection with the provision of sexual services by a person.
80C   Meaning of “circumstances of aggravation”
In this Division, circumstances of aggravation means circumstances involving either or both of the following:
(a)  the alleged victim is under the age of 18 years,
(b)  the alleged victim has a cognitive impairment (within the meaning of Division 10).
80D   Causing sexual servitude
(1)  A person:
(a)  who causes another person to enter into or remain in sexual servitude, and
(b)  who intends to cause, or is reckless as to causing, that sexual servitude,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 15 years.
(2)  A person is guilty of an offence against this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in circumstances of aggravation.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 20 years.
80E   Conduct of business involving sexual servitude
(1)  A person:
(a)  who conducts any business that involves the sexual servitude of other persons, and
(b)  who knows about, or is reckless as to, that sexual servitude,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 15 years.
(2)  A person commits an offence against this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in circumstances of aggravation.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 19 years.
(3)  For the purposes of this section, conducting a business includes:
(a)  taking any part in the management of the business, or
(b)  exercising control or direction over the business, or
(c)  providing finance for the business.
80F   Alternative verdicts
If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 80D (2) or 80E (2) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 80D (1) or 80E (1), respectively, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
Division 10B Incitement to commit sexual offence
80G   Incitement to commit sexual offence
(1)  A person who incites the commission of an offence under Division 10, 10A or 15A is guilty of an offence and is liable to the penalty provided for the commission of the offence.
(2)  For the person to be guilty, the person must intend that the offence incited be committed.
(3)  A person may be found guilty even if committing the offence incited is impossible.
(4)  Any defences, procedures, limitations or qualifying provisions that apply to the offence incited also apply to an offence under this section.
(5)  It is not an offence to incite the commission of the following offences:
(a)  an offence under section 61KC, 61KD, 61KE, 61KF, 66DA, 66DB, 66DC, 66DD, 66DE, 66DF or 73A that is constituted by inciting another person to sexual touching or a sexual act within the meaning of Division 10,
(b)  an offence under section 66EB, 66EC, 78B or 80 or an offence under section 344A of attempting to commit an offence under Division 10, 10A or 15.
81–81B   (Repealed)
Division 11 Misconduct with regard to corpses
81C   Misconduct with regard to corpses
Any person who:
(a)  indecently interferes with any dead human body, or
(b)  improperly interferes with, or offers any indignity to, any dead human body or human remains (whether buried or not),
shall be liable to imprisonment for two years.
Division 12 Attempts to procure abortion
82   Administering drugs etc to herself by woman with child
Whosoever, being a woman with child,
unlawfully administers to herself any drug or noxious thing, or
unlawfully uses any instrument or other means,
with intent in any such case to procure her miscarriage,
shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
83   Administering drugs etc to woman with intent
Whosoever:
unlawfully administers to, or causes to be taken by, any woman, whether with child or not, any drug or noxious thing, or
unlawfully uses any instrument or other means,
with intent in any such case to procure her miscarriage,
shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
84   Procuring drugs etc
Whosoever unlawfully supplies or procures any drug or noxious thing, or any instrument or thing whatsoever, knowing that the same is intended to be unlawfully used with intent to procure the miscarriage of any woman, whether with child or not, shall be liable to imprisonment for five years.
Division 13 Concealing birth of a child
85   Concealment of birth
(1)  Whosoever by any disposition of the dead body of a child, whether the child died before or after or during its birth, wilfully conceals or attempts to conceal the birth of the child, shall be liable to imprisonment for two years.
(2)  It shall be a sufficient defence to any charge under this section if the accused person shall satisfy the court or jury that the dead body in respect of which the disposition took place had issued from the body of its mother before the expiration of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy.
Division 13A
(Renumbered as Part 3 Division 14)
85A (Renumbered as sec 86)
Division 14 Kidnapping
86   Kidnapping
(1) Basic offence A person who takes or detains a person, without the person’s consent:
(a)  with the intention of holding the person to ransom, or
(a1)  with the intention of committing a serious indictable offence, or
(b)  with the intention of obtaining any other advantage,
is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(2) Aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if:
(a)  the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in the company of another person or persons, or
(b)  the person commits an offence under subsection (1) and at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, actual bodily harm is occasioned to the alleged victim.
A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 20 years.
(3) Specially aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1):
(a)  in the company of another person or persons, and
(b)  at the time of, or immediately before or after, the commission of the offence, actual bodily harm is occasioned to the alleged victim.
A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
(4) Alternative verdicts If on the trial of a person for an offence under subsection (2) or (3) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of a lesser offence under this section, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the lesser offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(5)  A person who takes or detains a child is to be treated as acting without the consent of the child.
(6)  A person who takes or detains a child does not commit an offence under this section if:
(a)  the person is the parent of the child or is acting with the consent of a parent of the child, and
(b)  the person is not acting in contravention of any order of a court relating to the child.
(7)  In this section:
child means a child under the age of 16 years.
detaining a person includes causing the person to remain where he or she is.
parent of a child means a person who has, in relation to the child, all the duties, powers, responsibilities and authority that, by law, parents have in relation to their children.
taking a person includes causing the person to accompany a person and causing the person to be taken.
87   Child abduction
(1)  A person who takes or detains a child with the intention of removing or keeping the child from the lawful control of any person having parental responsibility for the child, without the consent of that person, is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person who takes or detains a child with the intention of stealing from the child is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(3)  In this section:
child means a child under the age of 12 years.
detaining a child includes causing the child to remain where he or she is.
taking a child includes causing the child to accompany a person and causing the child to be taken.
(4)  In this section, a reference to a person who has parental responsibility for a child is a reference to:
(a)  a person who has, in relation to a child, all the duties, powers, responsibilities and authority that, by law, parents have in relation to their children, or
(b)  a person authorised to be the carer of the child under an Act relating to the care and protection of children.
88–91   (Repealed)
Division 14A Procuring for prostitution
91A   Procuring etc
Whosoever procures, entices or leads away any person (not being a prostitute), whether with that person’s consent or not for purposes of prostitution, either within or without New South Wales, shall, notwithstanding that some one or more of the various acts constituting the offence may have been committed outside New South Wales, be liable to imprisonment for seven years.
91B   Procuring person by drugs etc
Whosoever by means of any fraud, violence, threat, or abuse of authority, or by the use of any drug or intoxicating liquor, procures, entices, or leads away any person for purposes of prostitution, either within or without New South Wales, shall, notwithstanding that some one or more of the various acts constituting the offence may have been committed outside New South Wales, be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
Division 15 Child prostitution
91C   Definitions
For the purposes of this Division:
act of child prostitution means any sexual service, whether or not involving an indecent act:
(a)  that is provided by a child for the payment of money or the provision of any other material thing (whether or not it is in fact paid or provided to the child or to any other person), and
(b)  that can reasonably be considered to be aimed at the sexual arousal or sexual gratification of a person or persons other than the child,
and includes (but is not limited to) sexual activity between persons of different sexes or the same sex, comprising sexual intercourse (as defined in Division 10) for payment or masturbation committed by one person on another for payment, engaged in by a child.
child means a person who is under the age of 18 years.
91D   Promoting or engaging in acts of child prostitution
(1)  Any person who:
(a)  by any means, causes or induces a child to participate in an act of child prostitution, or
(b)  participates as a client with a child in an act of child prostitution,
is liable to imprisonment for 10 years or, if the child is under the age of 14 years, to imprisonment for 14 years.
(2)    (Repealed)
(3)  The consent of a child is not a defence to a charge relating to an offence under this section.
91E   Obtaining benefit from child prostitution
(1)  Any person who receives money or any other material benefit knowing that it is derived directly or indirectly from an act of child prostitution is liable to imprisonment for 10 years or, if the act of child prostitution involves a child under the age of 14 years, to imprisonment for 14 years.
(2)  A person is not guilty of an offence under this section if the person satisfies the court that the money or other material benefit concerned:
(a)  was received by the person for the lawful provision of goods or services, or
(b)  was paid or provided in accordance with a judgment or an order of a court or a legislative requirement, whether or not under New South Wales law.
(3)  The higher maximum penalty under this section in the case of an offence involving a child under the age of 14 years does not apply unless the age of the child is set out in the charge for the offence.
91F   Premises not to be used for child prostitution
(1)  Any person who is capable of exercising lawful control over premises at which a child participates in an act of child prostitution is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, each person:
(a)  who is an owner, lessee, licensee or occupier of premises,
(b)  who is concerned in the management of premises or in controlling the entry of persons to, or their movement within, premises,
is to be considered as capable of exercising lawful control over the premises, whether or not any other person is capable of exercising lawful control over the premises.
(3)  A person is not guilty of an offence under this section relating to an act of child prostitution if the person satisfies the court:
(a)  that the person did not know about the act, or
(b)  that the person did not know that a child was participating in the act or, for any other reason, did not know that the act was an act of child prostitution, or
(c)  that the person used all due diligence to prevent the child from participating in the act.
Division 15A Child abuse material
91FA   Definitions
For the purposes of this Division:
child means a person who is under the age of 16 years.
child abuse material—see section 91FB.
data includes:
(a)  information in any form, or
(b)  any program (or part of a program).
material includes any film, printed matter, data or any other thing of any kind (including any computer image or other depiction).
young person means a person who is of or above the age of 16 years and under the age of 18 years.
91FB   Child abuse material—meaning
(1)  In this Division:
child abuse material means material that depicts or describes, in a way that reasonable persons would regard as being, in all the circumstances, offensive:
(a)  a person who is, appears to be or is implied to be, a child as a victim of torture, cruelty or physical abuse, or
(b)  a person who is, appears to be or is implied to be, a child engaged in or apparently engaged in a sexual pose or sexual activity (whether or not in the presence of other persons), or
(c)  a person who is, appears to be or is implied to be, a child in the presence of another person who is engaged or apparently engaged in a sexual pose or sexual activity, or
(d)  the private parts of a person who is, appears to be or is implied to be, a child.
(2)  The matters to be taken into account in deciding whether reasonable persons would regard particular material as being, in all the circumstances, offensive, include:
(a)  the standards of morality, decency and propriety generally accepted by reasonable adults, and
(b)  the literary, artistic or educational merit (if any) of the material, and
(c)  the journalistic merit (if any) of the material, being the merit of the material as a record or report of a matter of public interest, and
(d)  the general character of the material (including whether it is of a medical, legal or scientific character).
(3)  Material that depicts a person or the private parts of a person includes material that depicts a representation of a person or the private parts of a person (including material that has been altered or manipulated to make a person appear to be a child or to otherwise create a depiction referred to in subsection (1)).
(4)  The private parts of a person are:
(a)  a person’s genital area or anal area, whether bare or covered by underwear, or
(b)  the breasts of a female person, or transgender or intersex person identifying as female, whether or not the breasts are sexually developed.
91G   Children not to be used for production of child abuse material
(1)  Any person who:
(a)  uses a child who is under the age of 14 years for the production of child abuse material, or
(b)  causes or procures a child of that age to be so used, or
(c)  having the care of a child of that age, consents to the child being so used or allows the child to be so used,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 14 years.
(2)  Any person who:
(a)  uses a child who is of or above the age of 14 years for the production of child abuse material, or
(b)  causes or procures a child of that age to be so used, or
(c)  having the care of a child of that age, consents to the child being so used or allows the child to be so used,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 10 years.
(3)    (Repealed)
(4)  For the purposes of this section, a person may have the care of a child without necessarily being entitled by law to have the custody of the child.
(5)  Where on the trial of a person for an offence under subsection (1) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under subsection (2), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(6)  Proceedings for an offence under this section against a child or young person may only be instituted by or with the approval of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
91H   Production, dissemination or possession of child abuse material
(1)  In this section:
disseminate child abuse material, includes:
(a)  send, supply, exhibit, transmit or communicate it to another person, or
(b)  make it available for access by another person, or
(c)  enter into any agreement or arrangement to do so.
possess child abuse material includes, in relation to material in the form of data, being in possession or control of data (within the meaning of section 308F (2)).
produce child abuse material includes:
(a)  film, photograph, print or otherwise make child abuse material, or
(b)  alter or manipulate any image for the purpose of making child abuse material, or
(c)  enter into any agreement or arrangement to do so.
(2)  A person who produces, disseminates or possesses child abuse material is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 10 years.
(3)  Proceedings for an offence under this section against a child or young person may only be instituted by or with the approval of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
91HAA   Exception
A person does not commit an offence under section 91H of possessing child abuse material if:
(a)  the possession of the material occurred when the accused person was under the age of 18 years, and
(b)  a reasonable person would consider the possession of the material by the accused person as acceptable having regard to each of the following (to the extent relevant):
(i)  the nature and content of the material,
(ii)  the circumstances in which the material was produced and came into the possession of the accused person,
(iii)  the age, intellectual capacity, vulnerability or other relevant circumstances of the child depicted in the material,
(iv)  the age, intellectual capacity, vulnerability or other relevant circumstances of the accused person at the time the accused person first came into possession of the material and at the time that the accused person’s possession of the material first came to the attention of a police officer,
(v)  the relationship between the accused person and the child depicted in the material.
91HA   Defences
(1) Innocent production, dissemination or possession It is a defence in proceedings for an offence against section 91H that the defendant did not know, and could not reasonably be expected to have known, that he or she produced, disseminated or possessed (as the case requires) child abuse material.
(2)  It is a defence in proceedings for an offence against section 91H not involving the production or dissemination of child abuse material that the material concerned came into the defendant’s possession unsolicited and the defendant, as soon as he or she became aware of its nature, took reasonable steps to get rid of it.
(3) Public benefit It is a defence in proceedings for an offence against section 91H that the conduct engaged in by the defendant:
(a)  was of public benefit, and
(b)  did not extend beyond what was of public benefit.
(4)  Conduct is of public benefit if, and only if, the conduct is necessary for or of assistance in:
(a)  enforcing or administering a law of the State, or of another State, a Territory or the Commonwealth, or
(b)  monitoring compliance with, or investigating a contravention of, a law of the State, or of another State, a Territory or the Commonwealth, or
(c)  the administration of justice.
(5)  The question of whether a person’s conduct is of public benefit is a question of fact and the person’s motives for engaging in the conduct are irrelevant.
(6) Law enforcement officers It is a defence in proceedings for an offence against section 91H that:
(a)  the defendant was, at the time of the offence, a law enforcement officer acting in the course of his or her duties, and
(b)  the conduct of the defendant was reasonable in the circumstances for the purpose of performing that duty.
(7) Classified material It is a defence in proceedings for an offence against section 91H that the material concerned was classified (whether before or after the commission of the alleged offence) under the Classification (Publications, Films and Computer Games) Act 1995 of the Commonwealth, other than as refused classification (RC).
(8) Approved research It is a defence in proceedings for an offence against section 91G or 91H that the conduct engaged in by the defendant:
(a)  was necessary for or of assistance in conducting scientific, medical or educational research that has been approved by the Attorney General in writing for the purposes of this section, and
(b)  did not contravene any conditions of that approval.
(9) Person producing, disseminating or possessing depictions of himself or herself It is a defence in proceedings for an offence against section 91H of possessing child abuse material if the only person depicted in the material is the accused person.
(10)  It is a defence in proceedings for an offence against section 91H of producing or disseminating child abuse material if:
(a)  the production or dissemination of the material occurred when the accused person was under the age of 18 years, and
(b)  the only person depicted in the material is the accused person.
(11)  Material that depicts a person other than the accused person is taken, for the purposes of this section, to depict only the accused person if the material would no longer be child abuse material were the depiction of the accused person to be removed.
(12)  The onus of proving under subsection (9) or (10) that material depicts the accused person and no other person lies with the accused person on the balance of probabilities.
Division 15B Voyeurism and related offences
91I   Definitions
(1)  In this Division:
building includes a vehicle, vessel, tent or temporary structure.
private parts means:
(a)  a person’s genital area or anal area, whether bare or covered by underwear, or
(b)  the breasts of a female person, or transgender or intersex person identifying as female, whether or not the breasts are sexually developed.
(2)  For the purposes of this Division, a person is engaged in a private act if:
(a)  the person is in a state of undress, using the toilet, showering or bathing, engaged in a sexual act of a kind not ordinarily done in public, or engaged in any other like activity, and
(b)  the circumstances are such that a reasonable person would reasonably expect to be afforded privacy.
(3)  For the purposes of this Division, a person films another person, or another person’s private parts, if the person causes one or more images (whether still or moving) of the other person or the other person’s private parts to be recorded or transmitted for the purpose of enabling the person or a third person to observe those images (whether during the filming or later).
91J   Voyeurism
(1) General offence A person who, for the purpose of obtaining sexual arousal or sexual gratification, observes a person who is engaged in a private act:
(a)  without the consent of the person being observed to being observed for that purpose, and
(b)  knowing that the person being observed does not consent to being observed for that purpose,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: 100 penalty units or imprisonment for 2 years, or both.
(2)  An offence against subsection (1) is a summary offence.
(3) Aggravated offence A person who, for the purpose of obtaining sexual arousal or sexual gratification, observes a person who is engaged in a private act:
(a)  without the consent of the person being observed to being observed for that purpose, and
(b)  knowing that the person being observed does not consent to being observed for that purpose, and
(c)  in circumstances of aggravation,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 5 years.
(4)  In this section, circumstances of aggravation means circumstances in which:
(a)  the person whom the offender observed was a child under the age of 16 years, or
(b)  the offender constructed or adapted the fabric of any building for the purpose of facilitating the commission of the offence.
(5) Alternative verdict If on the trial of a person charged with an offence against subsection (3) the trier of fact is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has committed an offence against subsection (1), the trier of fact may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of an offence against subsection (1). The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
(6) Attempts A person who attempts to commit an offence under subsection (1) or (3) is liable to the penalty provided for the commission of the offence.
91K   Filming a person engaged in private act
(1) General offence A person who, for the purpose of obtaining, or enabling another person to obtain, sexual arousal or sexual gratification, films another person who is engaged in a private act:
(a)  without the consent of the person being filmed to being filmed for that purpose, and
(b)  knowing that the person being filmed does not consent to being filmed for that purpose,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: 100 penalty units or imprisonment for 2 years, or both.
(2)  An offence against subsection (1) is a summary offence.
(3) Aggravated offence A person who, for the purpose of obtaining, or enabling another person to obtain, sexual arousal or sexual gratification, films another person who is engaged in a private act:
(a)  without the consent of the person being filmed to being filmed for that purpose, and
(b)  knowing that the person being filmed does not consent to being filmed for that purpose, and
(c)  in circumstances of aggravation,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 5 years.
(4)  In this section, circumstances of aggravation means circumstances in which:
(a)  the person whom the offender filmed was a child under the age of 16 years, or
(b)  the offender constructed or adapted the fabric of any building for the purpose of facilitating the commission of the offence.
(5) Alternative verdict If on the trial of a person charged with an offence against subsection (3) the trier of fact is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has committed an offence against subsection (1), the trier of fact may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of an offence against subsection (1). The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
(6) Attempts A person who attempts to commit an offence under subsection (1) or (3) is liable to the penalty provided for the commission of the offence.
91L   Filming a person’s private parts
(1) General offence A person who, for the purpose of obtaining, or enabling another person to obtain, sexual arousal or sexual gratification, films another person’s private parts, in circumstances in which a reasonable person would reasonably expect the person’s private parts could not be filmed:
(a)  without the consent of the person being filmed to being filmed for that purpose, and
(b)  knowing that the person being filmed does not consent to being filmed for that purpose,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: 100 penalty units or imprisonment for 2 years, or both.
(2)  An offence against subsection (1) is a summary offence.
(3) Aggravated offence A person who, for the purpose of obtaining, or enabling another person to obtain, sexual arousal or sexual gratification, films another person’s private parts, in circumstances in which a reasonable person would expect that his or her private parts could not be filmed:
(a)  without the consent of the person being filmed to being filmed for that purpose, and
(b)  knowing that the person being filmed does not consent to being filmed for that purpose, and
(c)  in circumstances of aggravation,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 5 years.
(4)  In this section, circumstances of aggravation means circumstances in which:
(a)  the person whom the offender filmed was a child under the age of 16 years, or
(b)  the offender constructed or adapted the fabric of any building for the purpose of facilitating the commission of the offence.
(5) Alternative verdict If on the trial of a person charged with an offence against subsection (3) the trier of fact is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has committed an offence against subsection (1), the trier of fact may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of an offence against subsection (1). The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
(6) Attempts A person who attempts to commit an offence under subsection (1) or (3) is liable to the penalty provided for the commission of the offence.
(7) Double jeopardy A person cannot be convicted of both an offence against this section and an offence against section 91K in respect of conduct occurring on the same occasion.
91M   Installing device to facilitate observation or filming
(1) Offence A person who, with the intention of enabling that person or any other person to commit an offence against section 91J, 91K or 91L, installs any device, or constructs or adapts the fabric of any building, for the purpose of facilitating the observation or filming of another person, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: 100 penalty units or imprisonment for 2 years, or both.
(2)  An offence against this section is a summary offence.
(3) Alternative verdict If on the trial of a person charged with an offence against section 91J, 91K or 91L the trier of fact is not satisfied that the offence is proven but is satisfied that the person has committed an offence against this section, the trier of fact may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of an offence against this section. The person is liable to punishment accordingly.
Division 15C Recording and distributing intimate images
91N   Definitions
(1)  In this Division:
distribute includes:
(a)  send, supply, exhibit, transmit or communicate to another person, or
(b)  make available for viewing or access by another person,
whether in person or by electronic, digital or any other means.
engaged in a private act means:
(a)  in a state of undress, or
(b)  using the toilet, showering or bathing, or
(c)  engaged in a sexual act of a kind not ordinarily done in public, or
(d)  engaged in any other like activity.
image means a still or moving image, whether or not altered.
intimate image means:
(a)  an image of a person’s private parts, or of a person engaged in a private act, in circumstances in which a reasonable person would reasonably expect to be afforded privacy, or
(b)  an image that has been altered to appear to show a person’s private parts, or a person engaged in a private act, in circumstances in which a reasonable person would reasonably expect to be afforded privacy.
private parts means:
(a)  a person’s genital area or anal area, whether bare or covered by underwear, or
(b)  the breasts of a female person, or transgender or intersex person identifying as female, whether or not the breasts are sexually developed.
record an image means record, take or capture an image, by any means.
(2)  A person may be regarded as having distributed an image to another person whether or not the other person views or accesses the image.
91O   Meaning of consent in intimate image offences
(1)  This section applies to all offences under this Division.
(2)  A person consents to the recording of an intimate image if the person freely and voluntarily agrees to the recording of the intimate image.
(3)  A person consents to the distribution of an intimate image if the person freely and voluntarily agrees to the distribution of the intimate image.
(4)  A person who consents to the recording or distribution of an image on a particular occasion is not, by reason only of that fact, to be regarded as having consented to the recording or distribution of that image or any other image on another occasion.
(5)  A person who consents to the distribution of an image to a particular person or in a particular way is not, by reason only of that fact, to be regarded as having consented to the distribution of that image or any other image to another person or in another way.
(6)  A person who distributes an image of himself or herself is not, by reason only of that fact, to be regarded as having consented to any other distribution of the image.
(7)  A person does not consent to the recording or distribution of an intimate image:
(a)  if the person is under the age of 16 years or does not otherwise have the capacity to consent, including because of cognitive incapacity, or
(b)  if the person does not have the opportunity to consent because the person is unconscious or asleep, or
(c)  if the person consents because of threats of force or terror (whether the threats are against, or the terror is instilled in, that person or any other person), or
(d)  if the person consents because the person is unlawfully detained.
(8)  This section does not limit the grounds on which it may be established that a person does not consent to the recording or distribution of an intimate image.
91P   Record intimate image without consent
(1)  A person who intentionally records an intimate image of another person:
(a)  without the consent of the person, and
(b)  knowing the person did not consent to the recording or being reckless as to whether the person consented to the recording,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: 100 penalty units or imprisonment for 3 years, or both.
(2)  A prosecution of a person under the age of 16 years for an offence against this section is not to be commenced without the approval of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
91Q   Distribute intimate image without consent
(1)  A person who intentionally distributes an intimate image of another person:
(a)  without the consent of the person, and
(b)  knowing the person did not consent to the distribution or being reckless as to whether the person consented to the distribution,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: 100 penalty units or imprisonment for 3 years, or both.
(2)  A prosecution of a person under the age of 16 years for an offence against this section is not to be commenced without the approval of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
91R   Threaten to record or distribute intimate image
(1)  A person who threatens to record an intimate image of another person:
(a)  without the consent of the other person, and
(b)  intending to cause that other person to fear that the threat will be carried out,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: 100 penalty units or imprisonment for 3 years, or both.
(2)  A person who threatens to distribute an intimate image of another person:
(a)  without the consent of the other person, and
(b)  intending to cause that other person to fear that the threat will be carried out,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: 100 penalty units or imprisonment for 3 years, or both.
(3)  A threat may be made by any conduct, and may be explicit or implicit and conditional or unconditional.
(4)  A person may threaten to distribute an image whether or not the image exists.
(5)  In proceedings for an offence against this section, the prosecution is not required to prove that the person alleged to have been threatened actually feared that the threat would be carried out.
(6)  A prosecution of a person under the age of 16 years for an offence against this section is not to be commenced without the approval of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
91S   Court may order rectification
(1)  A court that finds a person guilty of an offence against section 91P or 91Q may order the person to take reasonable actions to remove, retract, recover, delete or destroy any intimate image recorded or distributed by the person in contravention of the section within a period specified by the court.
(2)  A person who, without reasonable excuse, contravenes an order made under this section is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: 50 penalty units or imprisonment for 2 years, or both.
(3)  An offence against this section is a summary offence.
91T   Exceptions
(1)  A person does not commit an offence against section 91P or 91Q if:
(a)  the conduct alleged to constitute the offence was done for a genuine medical or scientific purpose, or
(b)  the conduct alleged to constitute the offence was done by a law enforcement officer for a genuine law enforcement purpose, or
(c)  the conduct alleged to constitute the offence was required by a court or otherwise reasonably necessary to be done for the purpose of legal proceedings, or
(d)  a reasonable person would consider the conduct of the accused person acceptable, having regard to each of the following (to the extent relevant):
(i)  the nature and content of the image,
(ii)  the circumstances in which the image was recorded or distributed,
(iii)  the age, intellectual capacity, vulnerability or other relevant circumstances of the person depicted in the image,
(iv)  the degree to which the accused person’s actions affect the privacy of the person depicted in the image,
(v)  the relationship between the accused person and the person depicted in the image.
(2)  In this section:
law enforcement officer means a police officer or other person who exercises law enforcement functions under a law of this State, another State, a Territory or the Commonwealth.
Division 16 Bigamy
92   Bigamy
Whosoever, being married, marries another person during the life of the former spouse (including husband or wife), shall be liable to imprisonment for seven years:
Provided that no person shall be convicted under this section whose spouse (including husband or wife) has at the time of such second marriage been continually absent from such person for the space of seven years, or, if domiciled in New South Wales at the time of the first marriage, has been continually absent from New South Wales for the space of five years then last past, and was, on reasonable grounds, believed by the accused at the time of the second marriage not to be living, of which facts the proof shall lie on the accused.
Editorial note.
 See Marriage Act 1961 (Commonwealth), section 94.
93   Participator in bigamy
Whosoever, whether married or unmarried, marries the spouse (including husband or wife) of any person not continually so absent, as in the proviso to section 92 mentioned, knowing him or her to be married, and the former wife or husband to be alive, shall be liable to imprisonment for five years.
Editorial note.
 See Marriage Act 1961 (Commonwealth), section 94.
Part 3A Offences relating to public order
Division 1 Riot and affray
93A   Definition
In this Division:
violence means any violent conduct, so that:
(a)  except for the purposes of section 93C, it includes violent conduct towards property as well as violent conduct towards persons, and
(b)  it is not restricted to conduct causing or intended to cause injury or damage but includes any other violent conduct (for example, throwing at or towards a person a missile of a kind capable of causing injury which does not hit or falls short).
93B   Riot
(1)  Where 12 or more persons who are present together use or threaten unlawful violence for a common purpose and the conduct of them (taken together) is such as would cause a person of reasonable firmness present at the scene to fear for his or her personal safety, each of the persons using unlawful violence for the common purpose is guilty of riot and liable to imprisonment for 15 years.
(2)  It is immaterial whether or not the 12 or more persons use or threaten unlawful violence simultaneously.
(3)  The common purpose may be inferred from conduct.
(4)  No person of reasonable firmness need actually be, or be likely to be, present at the scene.
(5)  Riot may be committed in private as well as in public places.
93C   Affray
(1)  A person who uses or threatens unlawful violence towards another and whose conduct is such as would cause a person of reasonable firmness present at the scene to fear for his or her personal safety is guilty of affray and liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  If 2 or more persons use or threaten the unlawful violence, it is the conduct of them taken together that must be considered for the purposes of subsection (1).
(3)  For the purposes of this section, a threat cannot be made by the use of words alone.
(4)  No person of reasonable firmness need actually be, or be likely to be, present at the scene.
(5)  Affray may be committed in private as well as in public places.
93D   Mental element under sections 93B and 93C
(1)  A person is guilty of riot only if the person intends to use violence or is aware that his or her conduct may be violent.
(2)  A person is guilty of affray only if the person intends to use or threaten violence or is aware that his or her conduct may be violent or threaten violence.
(3)  Subsection (1) does not affect the determination for the purposes of riot of the number of persons who use or threaten violence.
93E   (Repealed)
Division 2 Explosives and firearms offences
93F   Interpretation
(1)  In this Division:
firearm, imitation firearm, pistol and prohibited firearm have the same meanings as in the Firearms Act 1996.
unregistered firearm means a firearm that is not registered under the Firearms Act 1996, but does not include any such firearm that is not required to be registered under that Act.
(2)  For the purposes of this Division, a person who is in a vehicle or vessel in a public place is taken to be in that place.
(3)  In subsection (2), vehicle includes a caravan or anything else constructed to be drawn by a vehicle or animal.
93FA   Possession, supply or making of explosives
(1)  A person who possesses an explosive in a public place is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  A person who possesses, supplies or makes an explosive, under circumstances that give rise to a reasonable suspicion that the person did not possess, supply or make the explosive for a lawful purpose, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 3 years or 50 penalty units, or both.
(3)    (Repealed)
(4)  A person is not guilty of an offence against subsection (1) or (2) for possessing or making an explosive if the person satisfies the court that he or she had a reasonable excuse for doing so or did so for a lawful purpose.
93FB   Possession of dangerous articles other than firearms
(1)  A person who, in a public place, possesses:
(a)  anything (not being a firearm within the meaning of the Firearms Act 1996) capable of discharging by any means:
(i)  any irritant matter in liquid, powder, gas or chemical form or any dense smoke, or
(ii)  any substance capable of causing bodily harm, or
(b)  a fuse capable of use with an explosive or a detonator, or
(c)  a detonator, or
(d)  a distress signal, or distress flare, that operates by emitting a bright light,
is liable, on conviction before the Local Court, to imprisonment for 2 years, or a fine of 50 penalty units, or both.
(2)  A person is not guilty of an offence under this section for possessing anything referred to in subsection (1) if the person satisfies the court that he or she had a reasonable excuse for possessing it or possessed it for a lawful purpose.
(3)  A person is not guilty of an offence under this section for possessing anything referred to in subsection (1) (a) if the person satisfies the court that he or she possessed it for the purpose of self-defence and that it was reasonable in the circumstances to possess it for that purpose.
(4)  In considering a defence under subsection (3), the court must have regard to its reasonableness in all the circumstances of the case, including:
(a)  the immediacy of the perceived threat to the person charged, and
(b)  the circumstances, such as the time and location, in which the thing was possessed, and
(c)  the type of thing possessed, and
(d)  the age, characteristics and experiences of the person charged.
93G   Causing danger with firearm or spear gun
(1)  Any person who:
(a)  possesses a loaded firearm or loaded spear gun:
(i)  in a public place, or
(ii)  in any other place so as to endanger the life of any other person, or
(b)  fires a firearm or spear gun in or near a public place, or
(c)  carries or fires a firearm or spear gun in a manner likely to injure, or endanger the safety of, himself or herself or any other person or any property, or with disregard for the safety of himself or herself or any other person,
is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section:
(a)  a firearm is to be regarded as being loaded if there is ammunition:
(i)  in its chamber or barrel, or
(ii)  in any magazine or other device which is in such a position that the ammunition can be fitted into its chamber or barrel by operation of some other part of the firearm, and
(b)  a spear gun is to be regarded as being loaded if a spear, or an instrument or thing similar to a spear, is fitted to it.
(3)  A person is not guilty of an offence under this section for possessing or doing anything referred to in subsection (1) if the person satisfies the court that he or she had a reasonable excuse for possessing it or doing it or possessed it or did it for a lawful purpose.
93GA   Firing at dwelling-houses or buildings
(1)  A person who fires a firearm at a dwelling-house or other building with reckless disregard for the safety of any person is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(1A)  A person who, during a public disorder, fires a firearm at a dwelling-house or other building with reckless disregard for the safety of any person is liable to imprisonment for 16 years.
(1B)  A person who, in the course of an organised criminal activity, fires a firearm at a dwelling-house or other building with reckless disregard for the safety of any person is liable to imprisonment for 16 years.
(2)  In the prosecution of an offence under this section, it is not necessary to prove that a person was actually placed in danger by the firing of the firearm.
(3)  If, on the trial of a person for an offence under this section, the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence but is satisfied on the evidence that the person is guilty of an offence under section 93G or 93H, it may find the person not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under section 93G or 93H, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(4)  If, on the trial of a person for an offence under subsection (1A) or (1B), the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence but is satisfied on the evidence that the person is guilty of an offence under subsection (1), it may find the person not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under subsection (1), and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
93H   Trespassing with or dangerous use of firearm or spear gun
(1)  A person who, possessing a firearm, imitation firearm, spear gun or imitation spear gun, enters any building or land (other than a road), unless the person:
(a)  is the owner or occupier of the building or land or has the permission of the owner or occupier, or
(b)  does so with a reasonable excuse, or
(c)  does so for a lawful purpose,
is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  A person who fires a firearm or spear gun in or into any building or on or on to any land, unless the person:
(a)  is the owner or occupier of the building or land or has the permission of the owner or occupier, or
(b)  does so with a reasonable excuse, or
(c)  does so for a lawful purpose,
is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(3)  The onus of proving the matters referred to in subsection (1) (a), (b) and (c) and subsection (2) (a), (b) and (c) lies with the defendant.
93I   Possession of unregistered firearm in public place
(1)  A person who:
(a)  possesses an unregistered firearm in a public place, and
(b)  is not authorised under the Firearms Act 1996 to possess the firearm,
is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in circumstances of aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(3)  For the purposes of subsection (2), an offence under subsection (1) is committed in circumstances of aggravation if the offence involves the possession:
(a)  of more than one unregistered firearm, or
(b)  of an unregistered firearm that is a pistol, or
(c)  of an unregistered firearm that is a prohibited firearm.
Division 3 Contamination of goods
93J   Definitions of “contaminate” and “goods”
(1)  In this Division:
contaminate goods includes:
(a)  interfere with the goods, or
(b)  making it appear that the goods have been contaminated or interfered with.
goods includes any substance or article:
(a)  whether or not for human consumption, and
(b)  whether natural or manufactured, and
(c)  whether or not incorporated or mixed with other goods.
(2)  In this Division, a reference to economic loss caused through public awareness of the contamination of goods includes a reference to economic loss caused through:
(a)  members of the public not purchasing or using those goods or similar goods, or
(b)  steps taken to avoid public alarm or anxiety about those goods or similar goods.
93K   Contaminating goods with intent to cause public alarm or economic loss
A person who contaminates goods with the intention of:
(a)  causing public alarm or anxiety, or
(b)  causing economic loss through public awareness of the contamination,
is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
93L   Threatening to contaminate goods with intent to cause public alarm or economic loss
(1)  A person who makes a threat that goods will be contaminated with the intention of:
(a)  causing public alarm or anxiety, or
(b)  causing economic loss through public awareness of the contamination,
is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, a threat may be made by any act, and may be explicit or implicit and conditional or unconditional.
93M   Making false statements concerning contamination of goods with intent to cause public alarm or economic loss
(1)  A person who makes a statement that the person believes to be false:
(a)  with the intention of inducing the person to whom the statement is made or others to believe that goods have been contaminated, and
(b)  with the intention of thereby:
(i)  causing public alarm or anxiety, or
(ii)  causing economic loss through public awareness of the contamination,
is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, making a statement includes conveying information by any means.
93N   Aggravated circumstances—unwarranted demand
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence against this section if the person commits an offence under section 93K, 93L or 93M in connection with an unwarranted demand by the person. An unwarranted demand is a demand that the person believes he or she does not have any reasonable grounds for making.
(2)  A person convicted of an offence against this section is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(3)  If on the trial of a person for an offence against this section the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 93K, 93L or 93M, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
93O   Aggravated circumstances—death or grievous bodily harm
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence against this section if the person commits an offence against section 93K or 93L and:
(a)  the contamination of the goods causes the death of any person or grievous bodily harm to any person, or
(b)  the person intends by that contamination to cause such death or harm.
(2)  A person convicted of an offence against this section is liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
(3)  If on the trial of a person for an offence against this section the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 93K or 93L, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
93P   Special provisions relating to geographical application of this Division
(1)  A person commits an offence against a provision of this Division if:
(a)  the person does an act outside the State that constitutes the offence, and
(b)  (apart from this section) the act would have constituted the offence had it been done within this State, and
(c)  the offence involves intending to cause public alarm or anxiety, or economic loss, within the State.
(2)  A person who commits an offence by the operation of this section may be dealt with, and is liable to the same punishment, as if the person had committed the offence within the State.
(3)  If an offence against a provision of this Division involves intending to cause public alarm or anxiety, or economic loss, within the State, a geographical nexus between the State and any other element of the offence is not required.
(4)  The other provisions of this Act, the provisions of other Acts and the common law, in so far as these are applicable, apply to an offence to which this section applies as if it had been committed within the State (for example, section 344A and the rules of law relating to attempts to commit offences apply to such an offence).
(5)  This section is in addition to and does not derogate from any other basis on which the courts of the State may exercise criminal jurisdiction.
Division 4 Bomb and other hoaxes
93Q   Conveying false information that a person or property is in danger
(1)  A person who conveys information:
(a)  that the person knows to be false or misleading, and
(b)  that is likely to make the person to whom the information is conveyed fear for the safety of a person or of property, or both,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  This section extends to conveying information by any means including making a statement, sending a document, or transmitting an electronic or other message.
(3)  In this section, a reference to the safety of a person includes the safety of the person who conveys the information and the person to whom it is conveyed.
93R   Leaving or sending an article with intent to cause alarm
(1)  A person:
(a)  who leaves in any place, or sends by any means, a substance or article, and
(b)  who intends to induce a false belief that the substance or article is likely to be a danger to the safety of a person or of property, or both,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, a false belief that a substance or article is likely to be a danger includes a false belief that the substance or article is likely to explode, ignite, or contain, consist of or discharge a dangerous matter.
Division 5 Criminal groups
93S   Definitions
(1)  In this Division:
criminal group means a group of 3 or more people who have as their objective or one of their objectives:
(a)  obtaining material benefits from conduct that constitutes a serious indictable offence, or
(b)  obtaining material benefits from conduct engaged in outside New South Wales (including outside Australia) that, if it occurred in New South Wales, would constitute a serious indictable offence, or
(c)  committing serious violence offences, or
(d)  engaging in conduct outside New South Wales (including outside Australia) that, if it occurred in New South Wales, would constitute a serious violence offence.
law enforcement officer has the same meaning as it has in Division 8A of Part 3.
serious violence offence means an offence punishable by imprisonment for life or for a term of 10 years or more, where the conduct constituting the offence involves:
(a)  loss of a person’s life or serious risk of loss of a person’s life, or
(b)  serious injury to a person or serious risk of serious injury to a person, or
(c)  serious damage to property in circumstances endangering the safety of any person, or
(d)  perverting the course of justice (within the meaning of Part 7) in relation to any conduct that, if proved, would constitute a serious violence offence as referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).
(2)  A group of people is capable of being a criminal group for the purposes of this Division whether or not:
(a)  any of them are subordinates or employees of others, or
(b)  only some of the people involved in the group are involved in planning, organising or carrying out any particular activity, or
(c)  its membership changes from time to time.
93T   Participation in criminal groups
(1)  A person who participates in a criminal group is guilty of an offence if the person:
(a)  knows, or ought reasonably to know, that it is a criminal group, and
(b)  knows, or ought reasonably to know, that his or her participation in that group contributes to the occurrence of any criminal activity.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(1A)  A person who participates in a criminal group by directing any of the activities of the group is guilty of an offence if the person:
(a)  knows that it is a criminal group, and
(b)  knows, or is reckless as to whether, that participation contributes to the occurrence of any criminal activity.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person who assaults another person, intending by that action to participate in any criminal activity of a criminal group, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(3)  A person who destroys or damages property belonging to another person, or threatens to destroy or damage property belonging to another person, intending by that action to participate in any criminal activity of a criminal group, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(4)  A person who assaults a law enforcement officer while in the execution of the officer’s duty, intending by that action to participate in any criminal activity of a criminal group, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 14 years.
(4A)  A person who participates in a criminal group whose activities are organised and on-going by directing any of the activities of the group is guilty of an offence if the person:
(a)  knows that it is a criminal group, and
(b)  knows, or is reckless as to whether, that participation contributes to the occurrence of any criminal activity.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 15 years.
(5)  For the purposes of this section, an action is taken to be carried out in relation to a law enforcement officer while in the execution of the officer’s duty, even though the law enforcement officer is not on duty at the time, if it is carried out:
(a)  as a consequence of, or in retaliation for, actions undertaken by that law enforcement officer in the execution of the officer’s duty, or
(b)  because the officer is a law enforcement officer.
93TA   Receiving material benefit derived from criminal activities of criminal groups
(1)  A person who receives from a criminal group a material benefit that is derived from the criminal activities of the criminal group is guilty of an offence if the person:
(a)  knows that it is a criminal group, and
(b)  knows, or is reckless as to whether, the benefit is derived from criminal activities of the criminal group.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  In this section, a material benefit derived from the criminal activities of a criminal group is a material benefit derived or realised, or substantially derived or realised, directly or indirectly, from the criminal activities of a group.
93U   Alternative verdicts
(1)  If, on the trial of a person for an offence under section 93T (1A), (2), (3), (4) or (4A), the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 93T (1), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under section 93T (1), and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(2)  If, on the trial of a person for an offence under section 93T (1), (1A) or (4A), the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 93TA, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under section 93TA, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
Division 6 Unlawful gambling
93V   Offence of conducting unlawful gambling operation
(1)  A person who conducts an unlawful gambling operation is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: 1,000 penalty units or imprisonment for 7 years (or both).
(2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), an unlawful gambling operation means an operation involving at least 2 of the following elements (one of which must be paragraph (d)):
(a)  the keeping of at least 2 premises (whether or not either or both are gambling premises) that are used for the purposes of any form of gambling that is prohibited by or under the Unlawful Gambling Act 1998,
(b)  substantial planning and organisation in relation to matters connected with any such form of prohibited gambling (as evidenced by matters such as the number of persons, and the amount of money and gambling turnover, involved in the operation),
(c)  the use of sophisticated methods and technology (for example, telephone diverters, telecommunication devices, surveillance cameras and encrypted software programs) in connection with any such form of prohibited gambling or in avoiding detection of that gambling,
(d)  a substantial loss of potential revenue to the State that would be derived from lawful forms of gambling.
(3)  In any proceedings for an offence under this section, evidence that persons have been in regular attendance at premises suspected of being used for the purposes of any form of gambling that is prohibited by or under the Unlawful Gambling Act 1998 is relevant to the matters referred to in subsection (2) (a) or (b).
(4)  In this section:
conduct includes organise or manage.
gambling premises has the same meaning as in the Unlawful Gambling Act 1998.
Division 7 Consorting
93W   Definitions
(1)  In this Division:
consort means consort in person or by any other means, including by electronic or other form of communication.
convicted offender means a person who has been convicted of an indictable offence (disregarding any offence under section 93X).
(2)  For the purposes of this Division, an indictable offence includes an offence committed in another jurisdiction that would be an indictable offence if committed in this jurisdiction.
93X   Consorting
(1)  A person (other than a person under the age of 14 years) who:
(a)  habitually consorts with convicted offenders, and
(b)  consorts with those convicted offenders after having been given an official warning in relation to each of those convicted offenders,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 3 years, or a fine of 150 penalty units, or both.
(2)  A person does not habitually consort with convicted offenders unless:
(a)  the person consorts with at least 2 convicted offenders (whether on the same or separate occasions), and
(b)  the person consorts with each convicted offender on at least 2 occasions.
(3)  An official warning is a warning given by a police officer (orally or in writing) to the effect that:
(a)  a certain person is a convicted offender, and
(b)  habitually consorting with convicted offenders is an offence.
(4)  An official warning ceases to have effect for the purposes of subsection (1):
(a)  if the warning is given to a person under the age of 18 years—6 months after the warning is given, or
(b)  in any other case—2 years after the warning is given.
93Y   Defence
(1)  The following forms of consorting are to be disregarded for the purposes of section 93X if the defendant satisfies the court that the consorting was reasonable in the circumstances:
(a)  consorting with family members,
(b)  consorting that occurs in the course of lawful employment or the lawful operation of a business,
(c)  consorting that occurs in the course of training or education,
(d)  consorting that occurs in the course of the provision of a health service or welfare service,
(e)  consorting that occurs in the course of the provision of legal advice,
(f)  consorting that occurs in lawful custody or in the course of complying with a court order,
(g)  consorting that occurs in the course of complying with:
(i)  an order granted by the Parole Authority, or
(ii)  a case plan, direction or recommendation by a member of staff of Corrective Services NSW,
(h)  consorting that occurs in the course of providing transitional, crisis or emergency accommodation.
(2)  In this section:
family member includes, for a defendant who is an Aboriginal person or a Torres Strait Islander, a person who is or has been part of the extended family or kin of the defendant according to the indigenous kinship system of the defendant’s culture.
health service means:
(a)  medical (including psychological), hospital, ambulance, paramedical, dental, community health or environmental health service, or
(b)  another service:
(i)  relating to the maintenance or improvement of the health, or the restoration to health, of persons or the prevention of disease in, or injury to, persons (whether provided as a public or private service), and
(ii)  that is of a class or description prescribed by the regulations.
Parole Authority means the State Parole Authority constituted by section 183 of the Crimes (Administration of Sentences) Act 1999.
welfare service means a service (whether provided as a public or private service) relating to the provision of:
(a)  housing, employment benefits, rental assistance or other financial assistance or family support, or
(b)  another community welfare service necessary for the promotion, protection, development and maintenance of the well-being of persons, including any rehabilitation, counselling, drug or alcohol service.
Division 8 Public threats or incitement of violence on grounds of race, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity or intersex or HIV/AIDS status
93Z   Offence of publicly threatening or inciting violence on grounds of race, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity or intersex or HIV/AIDS status
(1)  A person who, by a public act, intentionally or recklessly threatens or incites violence towards another person or a group of persons on any of the following grounds is guilty of an offence:
(a)  the race of the other person or one or more of the members of the group,
(b)  that the other person has, or one or more of the members of the group have, a specific religious belief or affiliation,
(c)  the sexual orientation of the other person or one or more of the members of the group,
(d)  the gender identity of the other person or one or more of the members of the group,
(e)  that the other person is, or one or more of the members of the group are, of intersex status,
(f)  that the other person has, or one or more of the members of the group have, HIV or AIDS.
Maximum penalty:
(a)  in the case of an individual—100 penalty units or imprisonment for 3 years (or both), or
(b)  in the case of a corporation—500 penalty units.
(2)  In determining whether an alleged offender has committed an offence against this section, it is irrelevant whether the alleged offender’s assumptions or beliefs about an attribute of another person or a member of a group of persons referred to in subsection (1) (a)–(f) were correct or incorrect at the time that the offence is alleged to have been committed.
(3)  In determining whether an alleged offender has committed an offence against this section of intentionally or recklessly inciting violence, it is irrelevant whether or not, in response to the alleged offender’s public act, any person formed a state of mind or carried out any act of violence.
(4)  A prosecution for an offence against this section is not to be commenced without the approval of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
(5)  In this section:
gender identity means the gender related identity, appearance or mannerisms or other gender related characteristics of a person (whether by way of medical intervention or not), with or without regard to the person’s designated sex at birth.
intersex status means the status of having physical, hormonal or genetic features that are:
(a)  neither wholly female nor wholly male, or
(b)  a combination of female and male, or
(c)  neither female nor male.
public act includes:
(a)  any form of communication (including speaking, writing, displaying notices, playing of recorded material, broadcasting and communicating through social media and other electronic methods) to the public, and
(b)  any conduct (including actions and gestures and the wearing or display of clothing, signs, flags, emblems and insignia) observable by the public, and
(c)  the distribution or dissemination of any matter to the public.
For the avoidance of doubt, an act may be a public act even if it occurs on private land.
race includes colour, nationality, descent and ethnic, ethno-religious or national origin.
religious belief or affiliation means holding or not holding a religious belief or view.
sexual orientation means a person’s sexual orientation towards:
(a)  persons of the same sex, or
(b)  persons of a different sex, or
(c)  persons of the same sex and persons of a different sex.
violence includes violent conduct and violence towards a person or a group of persons includes violence towards property of the person or a member of the group, respectively.
Part 4 Stealing and similar offences
Division 1 General
94AA   Property previously stolen
Where on the trial of a person for any offence which includes the stealing of any property it appears that the property was, at the time when it was taken by the accused, already out of the possession of the owner by reason of its having been previously stolen, the accused may be convicted of the offence charged notwithstanding that it is not proved that the taking by him or her amounted to an interference with the right to possession of, or a trespass against, the owner.
Division 2 Robbery
94   Robbery or stealing from the person
Whosoever:
(a)  robs or assaults with intent to rob any person, or
(b)  steals any chattel, money, or valuable security from the person of another,
shall, except where a greater punishment is provided by this Act, be liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
95   Same in circumstances of aggravation
(1)  Whosoever robs, or assaults with intent to rob, any person, or steals any chattel, money, or valuable security, from the person of another, in circumstances of aggravation, shall be liable to imprisonment for twenty years.
(2)  In this section, circumstances of aggravation means circumstances that (immediately before, or at the time of, or immediately after the robbery, assault or larceny) involve any one or more of the following:
(a)  the alleged offender uses corporal violence on any person,
(b)  the alleged offender intentionally or recklessly inflicts actual bodily harm on any person,
(c)  the alleged offender deprives any person of his or her liberty.
96   Same (robbery) with wounding
Whosoever commits any offence under section 95, and thereby wounds or inflicts grievous bodily harm on any person, shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
97   Robbery etc or stopping a mail, being armed or in company
(1)  Whosoever, being armed with an offensive weapon, or instrument, or being in company with another person,
robs, or assaults with intent to rob, any person, or
stops any mail, or vehicle, railway train, or person conveying a mail, with intent to rob, or search the same,
shall be liable to imprisonment for twenty years.
(2) Aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) when armed with a dangerous weapon. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
(3) Alternative verdict If on the trial of a person for an offence under subsection (2) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under subsection (1), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
98   Robbery with arms etc and wounding
Whosoever, being armed with an offensive weapon, or instrument, or being in company with another person, robs, or assaults with intent to rob, any person, and immediately before, or at the time of, or immediately after, such robbery, or assault, wounds, or inflicts grievous bodily harm upon, such person, shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
Division 3 Demanding property with intent to steal
99   Demanding property with intent to steal
(1)  Whosoever, with menaces, or by force, demands any property from any person, with intent to steal the same, shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
(2)  A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in the company of another person or persons. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(3)  It is immaterial whether any such menace is of violence or injury by the offender or by any other person.
100–105   (Repealed)
Division 4 Sacrilege and housebreaking
105A   Definitions
(1)  In sections 106–115A:
building includes any place of Divine worship.
circumstances of aggravation means circumstances involving any one or more of the following:
(a)  the alleged offender is armed with an offensive weapon, or instrument,
(b)  the alleged offender is in the company of another person or persons,
(c)  the alleged offender uses corporal violence on any person,
(d)  the alleged offender intentionally or recklessly inflicts actual bodily harm on any person,
(e)  the alleged offender deprives any person of his or her liberty,
(f)  the alleged offender knows that there is a person, or that there are persons, in the place where the offence is alleged to be committed.
circumstances of special aggravation means circumstances involving any or all of the following:
(a)  the alleged offender intentionally wounds or intentionally inflicts grievous bodily harm on any person,
(b)  the alleged offender inflicts grievous bodily harm on any person and is reckless as to causing actual bodily harm to that or any other person,
(c)  the alleged offender is armed with a dangerous weapon.
(2)  The matters referred to in:
(a)  paragraph (c), (d) or (e) of the definition of circumstances of aggravation, or
(b)  paragraph (a) or (b) of the definition of circumstances of special aggravation,
can occur immediately before, or at the time of, or immediately after any of the elements of the offence concerned occurred.
(2A)  For the purposes of paragraph (f) of the definition of circumstances of aggravation, if there was a person, or there were persons, in the place in relation to which an offence is alleged to have been committed at the time it was committed, the defendant is presumed to have known that fact unless the defendant satisfies the court that he or she had reasonable grounds for believing that there was no one in the place.
(3)  The definitions in subsection (1) are not mutually exclusive.
106–108   (Repealed)
109   Breaking out of dwelling-house after committing, or entering with intent to commit, indictable offence
(1)  Whosoever:
enters the dwelling-house of another, with intent to commit a serious indictable offence therein, or,
being in such dwelling-house commits any serious indictable offence therein,
and in either case breaks out of the said dwelling-house shall be liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
(2) Aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in circumstances of aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 20 years.
(3) Specially aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (2) in circumstances of special aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
110   Breaking, entering and assaulting with intent to murder etc
Whosoever breaks and enters any dwelling-house, or any building appurtenant thereto, and while therein or on premises occupied therewith assaults with intent to murder any person, or inflicts grievous bodily harm upon any person, shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
111   Entering dwelling-house
(1)  Whosoever enters any dwelling-house, with intent to commit a serious indictable offence therein, shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
(2) Aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in circumstances of aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(3) Specially aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (2) in circumstances of special aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 20 years.
112   Breaking etc into any house etc and committing serious indictable offence
(1)  A person who:
(a)  breaks and enters any dwelling-house or other building and commits any serious indictable offence therein, or
(b)  being in any dwelling-house or other building commits any serious indictable offence therein and breaks out of the dwelling-house or other building,
is guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(2) Aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in circumstances of aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 20 years.
(3) Specially aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (2) in circumstances of special aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
113   Breaking etc into any house etc with intent to commit serious indictable offence
(1)  A person who breaks and enters any dwelling-house or other building with intent to commit any serious indictable offence therein is guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2) Aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in circumstances of aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(3) Specially aggravated offence A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (2) in circumstances of special aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 20 years.
114   Being armed with intent to commit indictable offence
(1)  Any person who:
(a)  is armed with any weapon, or instrument, with intent to commit an indictable offence,
(b)  has in his or her possession, without lawful excuse, any implement of housebreaking or safebreaking, or any implement capable of being used to enter or drive or enter and drive a conveyance,
(c)  has his or her face blackened or otherwise disguised, or has in his or her possession the means of blacking or otherwise disguising his or her face, with intent to commit an indictable offence,
(d)  enters or remains in or upon any part of a building or any land occupied or used in connection therewith with intent to commit an indictable offence in or upon the building,
shall be liable to imprisonment for seven years.
(2)  For the purposes of subsection (1) (b) conveyance means any cab, carriage, motor car, caravan, trailer, motor lorry, omnibus, motor or other bicycle, or any ship, or vessel, used in or intended for navigation, and drive shall be construed accordingly.
115   Being convicted offender armed with intent to commit indictable offence
Whosoever, having been convicted of any indictable offence, afterwards commits any offence mentioned in section 114, shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
115A   Alternative verdicts
(1) Aggravated offence reduced to basic offence If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 106 (2), 107 (2), 109 (2), 111 (2), 112 (2) or 113 (2) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 106 (1), 107 (1), 109 (1), 111 (1), 112 (1) or 113 (1) as appropriate, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(2) Specially aggravated offence reduced to aggravated offence If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 106 (3), 107 (3), 109 (3), 111 (3), 112 (3) or 113 (3) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 106 (2), 107 (2), 109 (2), 111 (2), 112 (2) or 113 (2) as appropriate, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(3) Specially aggravated offence reduced to basic offence If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 106 (3), 107 (3), 109 (3), 111 (3), 112 (3) or 113 (3) the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 106 (1), 107 (1), 109 (1), 111 (1), 112 (1) or 113 (1) as appropriate, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly. This subsection does not apply to an offence if the jury proceeds under subsection (2) in relation to it.
Division 5 Larceny
116   All larcenies to be of same nature
Every larceny, whatever the value of the property stolen, shall be deemed to be of the same nature, and shall be subject to the same incidents in all respects, as grand larceny was before the passing of the Act seventh and eighth George the Fourth, chapter twenty-nine.
117   Punishment for larceny
Whosoever commits larceny, or any indictable offence by this Act made punishable like larceny, shall, except in the cases hereinafter otherwise provided for, be liable to imprisonment for five years.
118   Intent to return property no defence
Where, on the trial of a person for larceny, it appears that the accused appropriated the property in question to the accused’s own use, or for the accused’s own benefit, or that of another, but intended eventually to restore the same, or in the case of money to return an equivalent amount, such person shall not by reason only thereof be entitled to acquittal.
119   Verdict where several takings proved
Where, on the trial of a person for larceny, it appears that the property alleged in any count to have been stolen at one time, was taken at different times, the prosecutor shall not be required to elect upon which taking the prosecutor will proceed, unless the Judge so orders:
Provided always that evidence shall not in any such case be given of any taking which occurred more than six months in point of time from any other of such takings.
120   Trial for larceny—verdict of embezzlement etc
Where, on the trial of a person for larceny, it appears that the person took the property in such manner as to amount in law to the offence of embezzlement or fraudulent misappropriation, or the fraudulent application, or disposition, of property as a clerk, or servant, or person employed in the Public Service, or of obtaining property by any false pretence or by any wilfully false promise, or partly by a false pretence and partly by a wilfully false promise, the jury may acquit the person of the larceny charged, and find the person guilty of such other offence, and the person shall be liable to punishment accordingly.
121   Verdict of “larceny or receiving”
Where, on the trial of a person charged with larceny, or any offence which includes larceny, and, also, with having unlawfully received the property charged to have been stolen, knowing it to have been stolen, the jury find specially that the person either stole, or unlawfully received, such property, and that they are unable to say which of those offences was committed by the person, such person shall not by reason thereof be entitled to acquittal, but shall be liable to be sentenced for the larceny, or for the unlawful receiving, whichever of the two offences is subject to the lesser punishment.
122   Verdict where persons indicted for joint larceny or receiving
On the trial of any two, or more, persons charged with larceny, and also with having unlawfully received property, the jury may find all, or any, of such persons guilty, either of stealing, or unlawfully receiving, the property, or part or parts thereof, or may find one, or more, of the said persons guilty of stealing, and the other, or others, of them guilty of unlawfully receiving the property, or part or parts thereof.
123   Verdict of minor indictable offence
Where, on the trial of a person for larceny, it appears that the property in question was taken, appropriated, or retained, under circumstances amounting to a minor indictable offence, the jury may acquit the person of the offence charged and find the person guilty of the minor indictable offence, and the person shall be liable to punishment accordingly.
124   Fraudulent appropriation
Where, upon the trial of a person for larceny, it appears:
(a)  that the person had fraudulently appropriated to his or her own use or that of another, the property in respect of which the person is indicted, although the person had not originally taken the property with any fraudulent intent, or
(b)  that the person had fraudulently retained the property in order to secure a reward for its restoration,
the jury may return a verdict accordingly, and thereupon the person shall be liable to imprisonment for two years, or to a fine of 20 penalty units, or both.
125   Larceny by bailee
Whosoever, being a bailee of any property, fraudulently takes, or converts, the same, or any part thereof, or any property into or for which it has been converted, or exchanged, to his or her own use, or the use of any person other than the owner thereof, although he or she does not break bulk, or otherwise determine the bailment, shall be deemed to be guilty of larceny and liable to be indicted for that offence.
The accused shall be taken to be a bailee within the meaning of this section, although he or she may not have contracted to restore, or deliver, the specific property received by him or her, or may only have contracted to restore, or deliver, the property specifically.
126   Stealing cattle or killing with intent to steal
Whosoever:
steals any cattle, or
wilfully kills any cattle with intent to steal the carcass, or skin, or other part, of the cattle so killed,
shall be liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
127   Stealing or killing cattle—uncertainty as to sex or age not to entitle to acquittal
Where, on the trial of a person for an offence under section 126 it appears that the person stole, or killed, an animal of the species described in the indictment, but it is uncertain on the evidence what was its sex, or age, such person shall not be entitled to acquittal by reason only of such uncertainty.
128   Trial for stealing cattle—verdict of stealing skins
Where, on the trial of a person for stealing cattle, the jury are not satisfied that the person is guilty thereof, but are satisfied that the person is guilty of stealing the carcass, or skin, or part, of such cattle, or of killing the said cattle within section 126, they may acquit the person of the offence charged, and find the person guilty of such last-mentioned stealing, or killing, and the person shall be liable to punishment accordingly.
129   Trial for killing cattle—verdict of stealing
Where, on the trial of a person for the offence of killing cattle within the meaning of section 126, the jury are not satisfied that the person is guilty thereof, but are satisfied that the person is guilty of stealing such cattle, they may acquit the person of the offence charged, and find the person guilty of such stealing, and the person shall be liable to punishment accordingly.
130   Trial for stealing cattle—verdict of misdemeanour
Where, on the trial of a person for stealing cattle, the jury are not satisfied that the person is guilty thereof, but are satisfied that the person is guilty of an offence within section 131, they may acquit the person of the offence charged, and find the person guilty of an offence under the said last mentioned section, and the person shall be liable to punishment accordingly.
131   Unlawfully using etc another person’s cattle
Whosoever:
takes and works, or otherwise uses, or takes for the purpose of working, or using, any cattle the property of another person without the consent of the owner, or person in lawful possession thereof, or
takes any such cattle for the purpose of secreting the same, or obtaining a reward for the restoration or pretended finding thereof, or for any other fraudulent purpose, or
fraudulently brands, or ear-marks, or defaces, or alters, the brands or ear-marks of any cattle the property of another person,
shall be liable to imprisonment for three years.
132   Stealing dogs
Whosoever, having been summarily convicted under this or any former Act, of any such offence as is hereinafter in this section mentioned, afterwards,
steals any dog, or
has unlawfully in his or her possession any stolen dog, or the skin of any stolen dog, knowing such dog to have been stolen,
shall be liable to imprisonment for one year.
133   Taking money to restore dogs
Whosoever corruptly takes any money or reward, directly or indirectly, under pretence, or upon account, of aiding any person to recover any dog which has been stolen, or which is in the possession of any person other than its owner, shall be liable to imprisonment for one year.
134   Stealing, destroying etc valuable security
Whosoever steals, embezzles, or for any fraudulent purpose destroys, cancels, obliterates, or conceals, the whole or any part of any valuable security, shall be liable, as if he or she had stolen a chattel, to be punished as for larceny.
135   Stealing, destroying etc wills or codicils
Whosoever steals, or, for any fraudulent purpose destroys, cancels, obliterates, or conceals, the whole or any part of any will, codicil, or other testamentary instrument, either during the life of the testator, or after the testator’s death, or whether the same relates to real, or personal estate, or to both, shall be liable to imprisonment for seven years.
136   Proviso to sections 134 and 135
No person shall be convicted under section 134 or section 135 in respect of any act done by the person, if, before being charged with the offence, the person first disclosed such act on oath, under compulsory process, in a proceeding instituted in good faith by a party aggrieved, or under compulsory examination in some matter in bankruptcy, or insolvency, or under compulsory examination in some matter in the liquidation of a corporation.
137   Civil remedies not affected by conviction
(1)  Nothing in section 134 or in section 135, nor any proceeding, conviction, or judgment thereupon, shall affect any remedy at law, or in equity, which any party aggrieved would have had if this Act had not been passed.
(2)  No evidence of the conviction of any person under either of the said sections shall be admissible in any action, or suit, against the person.
138   Stealing, destroying etc records etc of any court or public office
Whosoever steals, or for any fraudulent purpose, takes from its place of deposit, for the time being, or from any person having the lawful custody thereof, or unlawfully and intentionally or recklessly cancels, obliterates, injures, or destroys, the whole or any part, of any record, document, or writing, of, or belonging to, any Court, or relating to any matter or cause, civil or criminal, pending, or terminated, in any Court, or relating to the business of any office or employment under Her Majesty, and being in any public office, shall be liable to imprisonment for seven years.
139   Stealing etc metal, glass, wood etc fixed to house or land
Whosoever steals, or rips, cuts, severs, or breaks with intent to steal, any glass, or woodwork, belonging to any building, or any metal, or any utensil, or fixture, whether made of metal or other material, or of both respectively, fixed in, or to, any building, or anything made of metal, fixed in any land being private property, or used as a fence to any dwelling-house, garden, or area, or being in any square, or street, or in, or on, any place dedicated to public use or ornament, or in any burial-ground, shall be liable to be punished as for larceny.
140   Stealing etc trees etc in pleasure-grounds etc
Whosoever:
steals, or destroys or damages with intent to steal, the whole, or any part, of any tree, sapling, shrub, or plant, or any underwood, growing in any park, pleasure-ground, garden, orchard, or avenue, or in any ground belonging to any dwelling-house, where the value of the article stolen, or the amount of injury done, exceeds two dollars, or
steals, or destroys or damages with intent to steal, the whole, or any part, of any tree, sapling, shrub, or plant, or any underwood respectively growing elsewhere than in any situation beforementioned, where the value of the article stolen, or the amount of injury done, exceeds ten dollars,
shall be liable to be punished as for larceny.
141–147   (Repealed)
148   Stealing property in a dwelling-house
Whosoever steals in a dwelling-house any property shall be liable to imprisonment for seven years.
149   The same with menaces
Whosoever steals any property in a dwelling-house, and uses thereafter any menace or threat to any person therein, shall be liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
150   Stealing goods in process of manufacture
Whosoever steals, to the value of one dollar, any goods, article, or material, while anywhere placed, or exposed, during the process or progress of manufacture, shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years.
151   Selling etc materials to be manufactured
Whosoever, being, for the purpose of manufacture, or any special purpose connected with manufacture, employed to make, prepare, or work up, any goods, article, or material, or being for any such purpose entrusted with any such goods, article, or material, or with any tools, or apparatus, sells, pawns, purloins, secretes, embezzles, exchanges, or otherwise fraudulently disposes of the same, or any part thereof, shall be liable to imprisonment for four years.
152   Stealing from ship in port or on wharfs etc
Whosoever:
steals any property in any vessel, barge, or boat, while in any haven, or port, or upon any navigable river, or canal, or in any creek, or basin, belonging to, or communicating with, any such haven, port, river, or canal, or
steals any property from any dock, wharf, or quay,
shall be liable to imprisonment for seven years.
153   Stealing from ship in distress or wrecked
Whosoever steals, or plunders, any part of any vessel in distress, or wrecked, stranded, or cast on shore, or any property of any kind to the value of two dollars belonging to such vessel, shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
154   Tenants etc stealing articles let to hire
Whosoever, being the tenant, or occupier, of any house, building, or lodging, steals any chattel, or fixture let to be used therewith, whether the contract was entered into by the accused, or by any person on his or her behalf, shall be liable to be punished as for larceny.
154A   Taking a conveyance without consent of owner
(1)  Any person who:
(a)  without having the consent of the owner or person in lawful possession of a conveyance, takes and drives it, or takes it for the purpose of driving it, or secreting it, or obtaining a reward for its restoration or pretended restoration, or for any other fraudulent purpose, or
(b)  knowing that any conveyance has been taken without such consent, drives it or allows himself or herself to be carried in or on it,
shall be deemed to be guilty of larceny and liable to be indicted for that offence.
(2)  For the purposes of this section conveyance means any cart, wagon, cab, carriage, motor car, caravan, trailer, motor lorry, tractor, earth moving equipment, omnibus, motor or other bicycle, tank or other military vehicle, or any ship, or vessel, used or intended for navigation, and drive shall be construed accordingly.
154AA   (Repealed)
154B   Stealing aircraft and unlawfully taking or exercising control of aircraft
(1)  Whosoever steals any aircraft shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
(2)  Whosoever without lawful excuse takes or exercises control, whether direct or through another person, of an aircraft shall be deemed to be guilty of larceny and be liable to imprisonment for seven years.
(3)  Whosoever without lawful excuse takes or exercises control, whether direct or through another person, of an aircraft while another person, not being an accomplice of the first-mentioned person, is on board the aircraft shall be deemed to be guilty of larceny and be liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.
(4)  Whosoever without lawful excuse, by force or violence or threat of force or violence, or by any trick or false pretence, takes or exercises control, whether direct or through another person, of an aircraft while another person, not being an accomplice of the first-mentioned person, is on board the aircraft shall be deemed to be guilty of larceny and be liable to imprisonment for twenty years.
154C   Taking motor vehicle or vessel with assault or with occupant on board
(1)  A person who:
(a)  assaults another person with intent to take a motor vehicle or vessel and, without having the consent of the owner or person in lawful possession of it, takes and drives it, or takes it for the purpose of driving it, or
(b)  without having the consent of the owner or person in lawful possession of a motor vehicle or vessel, takes and drives it, or takes it for the purpose of driving it, when a person is in or on it,
is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person is guilty of an offence under this subsection if the person commits an offence under subsection (1) in circumstances of aggravation. A person convicted of an offence under this subsection is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(3)  In this section:
circumstances of aggravation means circumstances involving any one or more of the following:
(a)  the alleged offender is in the company of another person or persons,
(b)  the alleged offender is armed with an offensive weapon or instrument,
(c)  the alleged offender intentionally or recklessly inflicts actual bodily harm on any person.
drive includes operate.
motor vehicle means a motor vehicle within the meaning of the Road Transport Act 2013.
vessel means a vessel within the meaning of the Marine Safety Act 1998.
154D   Stealing firearms
(1)  A person who steals a firearm is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(2)  In this section:
firearm has the same meaning as in the Firearms Act 1996, and includes an imitation firearm within the meaning of that Act.
Division 5A Offences relating to theft of motor vehicles and vessels
154E   Definitions
(1)  In this Division:
interfere with a thing includes alter, deface, remove, obliterate, conceal or add anything to the thing.
motor vehicle means:
(a)  a motor vehicle within the meaning of the Road Transport Act 2013 (whether or not the vehicle contains the motor intended to form part of it), or
(b)  a motor intended to form part of, or capable of forming part of, any such motor vehicle, or
(c)  any part of any such motor vehicle containing, or consisting of, an identification plate for a vehicle under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth.
unique identifier means any numbers, letters, symbols or other identification information:
(a)  marked on or attached to a motor vehicle or vessel, or a part of a motor vehicle or vessel, or
(b)  marked on a thing that is designed to be attached to a motor vehicle or vessel, or a part of the motor vehicle or vessel, or
(c)  stored in electronic form in a part of a motor vehicle or vessel,
for the primary purpose of:
(d)  enabling a particular motor vehicle, vessel or part to be distinguished from all other motor vehicles, vessels or parts (including by enabling a part to be identified as a part of a particular motor vehicle or vessel), or
(e)  identifying different motor vehicle or vessel production batches (including by enabling a part to be identified as a part of a motor vehicle or vessel of a particular production batch).
vessel means a vessel within the meaning of the Marine Safety Act 1998.
(2)  For the purposes of this Division, a part of a motor vehicle or vessel includes a thing (such as a key) manufactured in connection with the motor vehicle or vessel that enables the operation of the motor vehicle or vessel or prevents the unauthorised operation of the motor vehicle or vessel.
154F   Stealing motor vehicle or vessel
A person who steals a motor vehicle or vessel is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 10 years.
154G   Facilitating organised car or boat rebirthing activities
(1)  A person who facilitates a car or boat rebirthing activity that is carried out on an organised basis knowing that:
(a)  it is a car or boat rebirthing activity, and
(b)  it is carried out on an organised basis,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 14 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, a car or boat rebirthing activity is an activity involving one or more of the following:
(a)  the stealing of a motor vehicle or vessel or the receiving of a stolen motor vehicle or stolen vessel,
(b)  the interference with a motor vehicle or vessel, or a part of a motor vehicle or vessel, or a unique identifier, for the purpose of concealing the fact that a motor vehicle or vessel, or any part of a motor vehicle or vessel, is stolen,
(c)  the affixing of stolen parts to a motor vehicle or vessel,
(d)  the interference with a unique identifier, being a unique identifier that wholly or partly identifies a motor vehicle or vessel for registration under a law of any jurisdiction, for the purpose of disguising or misrepresenting the identity of a motor vehicle or vessel,
(e)  the registration, in this or any other jurisdiction, of a stolen motor vehicle or stolen vessel, or of a motor vehicle or vessel that has had stolen parts affixed to it,
(f)  the supply of, or offering to supply, a stolen motor vehicle or stolen vessel.
(3)  A person facilitates a car or boat rebirthing activity if the person:
(a)  takes, or participates in, any step, or causes any step to be taken, that is part of the activity, or
(b)  provides or arranges finance for any step that is part of the activity, or
(c)  provides the premises in which any step that is part of the activity is taken, or allows any step that is part of the activity to be taken in premises of which the person is the owner, lessee or occupier or of which the person has the care, control or management.
(4)  A car or boat rebirthing activity is carried out on an organised basis if:
(a)  it is planned, organised, structured or otherwise carried out in such a manner as to indicate that the activity is carried out on more than one occasion and involves more than one participant, and
(b)  it is carried out for profit or gain.
(5)  In proceedings for an offence against this section, for the purpose of proving that an activity was carried out on an organised basis, or that the accused knew it was carried out on an organised basis, it is not necessary to prove:
(a)  that the accused knew any of the participants in the activity or that any of the participants knew each other, or
(b)  that the activity was planned, organised, structured or otherwise carried out under the direction of any particular person or persons or in any hierarchical manner, or
(c)  that the same participants were involved on each occasion on which the activity was carried out.
154H   Making, using and interfering with unique identifiers
(1)  A person who:
(a)  dishonestly interferes with, or copies, a unique identifier, or
(b)  possesses a motor vehicle or vessel, or a part of a motor vehicle or vessel, with the intention of dishonestly interfering with, or copying, a unique identifier, or
(c)  dishonestly makes a unique identifier, or a purported unique identifier, or
(d)  knowingly induces another person to accept any information attached to a motor vehicle, vessel or a part of a motor vehicle or vessel as a genuine unique identifier for the motor vehicle, vessel or part, when the information is not in fact a genuine unique identifier for that motor vehicle, vessel or part,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 7 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, information is attached to a motor vehicle, vessel or a part of a motor vehicle or vessel if it is:
(a)  marked on or attached to the motor vehicle, vessel or part, or
(b)  marked on a thing attached to the motor vehicle, vessel or part, or
(c)  stored in electronic form in a part of the motor vehicle or vessel.
(3)  In proceedings for an offence against this section, if it is necessary to allege a person knowingly induced another person to accept information attached to a motor vehicle, vessel or a part of a motor vehicle or vessel as a genuine unique identifier for the motor vehicle, vessel or part, it is not necessary to allege that the accused knowingly induced a particular person to accept the information as a genuine unique identifier.
(4)  In this section, a reference to inducing a person to accept information attached to a motor vehicle, vessel or a part of a motor vehicle or vessel as a genuine unique identifier includes a reference to causing a computer to respond to the information attached to the motor vehicle, vessel or part as if it were a genuine unique identifier.
(5)  In this section:
information includes numbers, letters or symbols.
154I   Possession of motor vehicle or vessel where unique identifier has been interfered with
(1)  A person who dishonestly has possession of a motor vehicle or vessel, or a part of a motor vehicle or vessel, a unique identifier of which has been interfered with, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, a person dishonestly has possession of a thing if:
(a)  the person obtained or received the thing dishonestly, or
(b)  the person intends to register, supply or use the thing dishonestly.
154J   Possession of vehicle identification plate not attached to motor vehicle
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence if the person, without reasonable excuse, knowingly has possession of a vehicle identification plate not attached to the motor vehicle to which it relates.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  The onus of proof of reasonable excuse in proceedings for an offence against this section lies on the accused.
(3)  In this section:
motor vehicle means a motor vehicle within the meaning of the Road Transport Act 2013 (whether or not the vehicle contains the motor intended to form part of it).
vehicle identification number means a vehicle identification number allocated to a vehicle in accordance with the national standards under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth.
vehicle identification plate means a plate, label or other thing that has a vehicle identification number on it, is designed to be attached to a motor vehicle and which:
(a)  enables the motor vehicle to be identified for the purposes of registration under a law of any jurisdiction, or
(b)  includes information relating to the manufacture of the motor vehicle or compliance with the national standards under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 of the Commonwealth.
Division 6 Embezzlement or larceny
155   Definition of clerk or servant
Every person employed for any purpose, as, or in the capacity of, a clerk, or servant, or as a collector of moneys, although temporarily only, or employed also by other persons, or employed to pay as well as receive moneys, or although the person had no authority from his or her employer to receive money, or other property, on his or her account, shall be deemed a clerk, or servant.
156   Larceny by clerks or servants
Whosoever, being a clerk, or servant, steals any property belonging to, or in the possession, or power of, his or her master, or employer, or any property into or for which it has been converted, or exchanged, shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
157   Embezzlement by clerks or servants
Whosoever, being a clerk, or servant, fraudulently embezzles, either the whole or any part of, any property delivered to, or received, or taken into possession by him or her, for, or in the name, or on the account of, his or her master, or employer, shall be deemed to have stolen the same, although such property was not received into the possession of such master, or employer, otherwise than by the actual possession of such clerk, or servant, and shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
158   (Repealed)
159   Larceny by persons in Public Service
Whosoever, being employed in the Public Service, steals any property, or any part thereof, intrusted to him or her, or taken into his or her possession, or being in his or her custody, or under his or her control, by virtue or colour of such employment, shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
160   Embezzlement etc by persons in the Public Service
Whosoever, being employed in the Public Service, fraudulently embezzles any property, or any part thereof, so intrusted to him or her, or taken into his or her possession, or being in his or her custody, or under his or her control, or fraudulently secretes, removes, or in any manner fraudulently applies, or disposes of, the same, or any part thereof, shall be deemed to have stolen the same, and shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
161   Proof of general deficiency in accounts
On the prosecution of a person for larceny, or embezzlement as a clerk, or servant, or as a person employed in the Public Service, where the charge is in respect of money, it shall not be necessary to prove the larceny, or embezzlement, by the accused of any specific sum of money, if there is proof of a general deficiency on the examination of the books of account, or entries kept, or made by him or her, or otherwise, and the jury are satisfied that he or she stole, or fraudulently embezzled the deficient money, or any part thereof.
162   Larceny etc by joint owners
Whosoever, being a member of any copartnership, or being one of two, or more, joint owners, steals, or embezzles, any property of, or belonging to, such copartnership, or joint owners, may be convicted of, and punished for, the offence as if he or she was not a member of the copartnership, or one of such joint owners.
Copartnership shall, for the purposes of this section, include all corporations and societies whatsoever.
163   Trial for embezzlement—verdict of larceny
Where, on the trial of any person for embezzlement, or the fraudulent application, or disposition, of property as a clerk, or servant, or person employed in the Public Service, it appears that the person obtained the property in such manner as to amount in law to larceny, the jury may acquit the person of the offence charged, and find the person guilty of larceny, or of larceny as such clerk, servant, or person, as the case may be, and the person shall be liable to punishment accordingly.
164–186   (Repealed)
Division 16 Receivers
187   Term “stealing” in sections 188 and 189
For the purposes of sections 188 and 189:
Stealing includes the taking, extorting, obtaining, embezzling, or otherwise disposing of the property in question.
188   Receiving stolen property where stealing a serious indictable offence
(1)  Whosoever receives, or disposes of, or attempts to dispose of, any property, the stealing whereof amounts to a serious indictable offence, knowing the same to have been stolen, shall be guilty of a serious indictable offence, and may be indicted, either as an accessory after the fact, or for a substantive offence, and in the latter case whether the principal offender has been previously tried or not, or is amenable to justice or not, and in either case is liable:
(a)  if the property is a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle part, or a vessel or a vessel part, to imprisonment for 12 years, or
(b)  in the case of any other property, to imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  In this section:
motor vehicle has the same meaning as it has in Division 5A.
vessel means a vessel within the meaning of the Marine Safety Act 1998.
189   Receiving etc where principal guilty of minor indictable offence
Whosoever receives, or disposes of, or attempts to dispose of, any property, the stealing whereof is a minor indictable offence, knowing the same to have been stolen, shall be guilty of a minor indictable offence, and whether the person guilty of the principal offence has been previously tried or not, or is amenable to justice or not, shall be liable to imprisonment for three years.
189A   Receiving etc goods stolen out of New South Wales
(1)  Whosoever, without lawful excuse, receives or disposes of, or attempts to dispose of, or has in his or her possession, any property stolen outside the State of New South Wales, knowing the same to have been stolen, and whether or not he or she took part in the stealing of the property, shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section property shall be deemed to have been stolen if it has been taken, extorted, obtained, embezzled, converted, or disposed of under such circumstances that if the act had been committed in the State of New South Wales the person committing it would have been guilty of an indictable offence according to the law for the time being of the State of New South Wales.
(3)  No person shall be liable to conviction under this section if the taking, extorting, obtaining, embezzling, converting, or disposing is not a criminal offence in the country in which the act is committed.
189B   Prosecution under section 188 or 189 where property stolen in course of transmission
(1)  Where in the trial of a person for the offence under section 188 or 189 of receiving, or disposing of, or attempting to dispose of, any property knowing it to have been stolen, it is proved that the property was stolen in the course of transmission between New South Wales and any other jurisdiction or between any other jurisdiction and New South Wales:
(a)  the person shall be liable to be convicted of the offence without proof that the stealing took place in New South Wales, and
(b)  for the purpose of determining whether or not the stealing amounts to a serious indictable offence or a minor indictable offence, the stealing shall be deemed to have taken place in New South Wales.
(2)  For the purposes of subsection (1) other jurisdiction means a State (other than New South Wales) or Territory of the Commonwealth.
190   Receiving etc cattle unlawfully killed, or carcass etc
Whosoever:
receives any animal, unlawfully killed, with intent to steal the carcass, or skin, or other part thereof, knowing the same to have been so killed, or
receives, or disposes of, or attempts to dispose of, any part of an animal so killed, or of an animal unlawfully stolen, knowing it to have been so killed or so stolen,
shall be guilty of a serious indictable offence, and may be indicted and punished as if the animal had been stolen, and the accused had unlawfully received the same.
191   Uncertainty as to sex or age not to entitle to acquittal
Where, on the trial of a person for an offence under section 190, it appears that the animal was of the species mentioned in the indictment, but it is uncertain on the evidence what was its sex or age, such person shall not be entitled to acquittal by reason only of such uncertainty.
192   Receiving material or tools intrusted for manufacture
Whosoever receives any goods, article, or material or any tools, or apparatus for manufacturing, or working up, the same, knowing the same to have been purloined, embezzled, or secreted, within the meaning of section 151, or that the person offering the same is fraudulently disposing thereof, shall be liable to imprisonment for four years.
192A   Verdict where several persons are indicted for jointly receiving
Where, on the trial of two or more persons for jointly receiving property, it appears that one, or more, separately received such property, or any part thereof, the jury may convict such one or more of the said persons as is, or are, proved to have so received the same.
Part 4AA Fraud
Division 1 Preliminary
192B   Deception
(1)  In this Part, deception means any deception, by words or other conduct, as to fact or as to law, including:
(a)  a deception as to the intentions of the person using the deception or any other person, or
(b)  conduct by a person that causes a computer, a machine or any electronic device to make a response that the person is not authorised to cause it to make.
(2)  A person does not commit an offence under this Part by a deception unless the deception was intentional or reckless.
192C   Obtaining property belonging to another
(1)  For the purposes of this Part, a person obtains property if:
(a)  the person obtains ownership, possession or control of the property for himself or herself or for another person, or
(b)  the person enables ownership, possession or control of the property to be retained by himself or herself or by another person, or
(c)  the person induces a third person to do something that results in the person or another person obtaining or retaining ownership, possession or control of the property.
(2)  A person does not commit an offence under this Part by obtaining or intending to obtain property belonging to another unless the person intends to permanently deprive the other of the property.
(3)  For the purposes of this Part, property belongs to a person if:
(a)  the person has possession or control of the property, or
(b)  the person has a proprietary right or interest in the property (not being an equitable interest arising only from an agreement to transfer or grant an interest or from a constructive trust).
If property is subject to a trust, the persons to whom it belongs include any person having a right to enforce the trust.
(4)  A person obtaining property belonging to another without meaning the other permanently to lose the thing itself has, nevertheless, the intention of permanently depriving the other of it if the person’s intention is to treat the thing as his or her own to dispose of regardless of the other’s rights. A borrowing or lending of the property may amount to so treating it if, but only if, the borrowing or lending is for a period and in circumstances making it equivalent to an outright taking or disposal.
(5)  Without limiting the generality of subsection (4), if:
(a)  a person has possession or control (lawfully or not) of property belonging to another, and
(b)  the person parts with the property under a condition as to its return that the person may not be able to perform, and
(c)  the parting is done for the purposes of his or her own and without the other’s authority,
the parting amounts to treating the property as his or her own to dispose of regardless of the other’s rights.
192D   Obtaining financial advantage or causing financial disadvantage
(1)  In this Part, obtain a financial advantage includes:
(a)  obtain a financial advantage for oneself or for another person, and
(b)  induce a third person to do something that results in oneself or another person obtaining a financial advantage, and
(c)  keep a financial advantage that one has,
whether the financial advantage is permanent or temporary.
(2)  In this Part, cause a financial disadvantage means:
(a)  cause a financial disadvantage to another person, or
(b)  induce a third person to do something that results in another person suffering a financial disadvantage,
whether the financial disadvantage is permanent or temporary.
Division 2 Fraud and related offences
192E   Fraud
(1)  A person who, by any deception, dishonestly:
(a)  obtains property belonging to another, or
(b)  obtains any financial advantage or causes any financial disadvantage,
is guilty of the offence of fraud.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person’s obtaining of property belonging to another may be dishonest even if the person is willing to pay for the property.
(3)  A person may be convicted of the offence of fraud involving all or any part of a general deficiency in money or other property even though the deficiency is made up of any number of particular sums of money or items of other property that were obtained over a period of time.
(4)  A conviction for the offence of fraud is an alternative verdict to a charge for the offence of larceny, or any offence that includes larceny, and a conviction for the offence of larceny, or any offence that includes larceny, is an alternative verdict to a charge for the offence of fraud.
192F   Intention to defraud by destroying or concealing accounting records
(1)  A person who dishonestly destroys or conceals any accounting record with the intention of:
(a)  obtaining property belonging to another, or
(b)  obtaining a financial advantage or causing a financial disadvantage,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  In this section, destroy includes obliterate.
192G   Intention to defraud by false or misleading statement
A person who dishonestly makes or publishes, or concurs in making or publishing, any statement (whether or not in writing) that is false or misleading in a material particular with the intention of:
(a)  obtaining property belonging to another, or
(b)  obtaining a financial advantage or causing a financial disadvantage,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
192H   Intention to deceive members or creditors by false or misleading statement of officer of organisation
(1)  An officer of an organisation who, with the intention of deceiving members or creditors of the organisation about its affairs, dishonestly makes or publishes, or concurs in making or publishing, a statement (whether or not in writing) that to his or her knowledge is or may be false or misleading in a material particular is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 7 years.
(2)  In this section:
creditor of an organisation includes a person who has entered into a security for the benefit of the organisation.
officer of an organisation includes any member of the organisation who is concerned in its management and any person purporting to act as an officer of the organisation.
organisation means any body corporate or unincorporated association.
Part 4AB Identity offences
192I   Definitions
In this Part:
deal in identification information includes make, supply or use any such information.
identification information means information relating to a person (whether living or dead, real or fictitious, or an individual or body corporate) that is capable of being used (whether alone or in conjunction with other information) to identify or purportedly identify the person, and includes the following:
(a)  a name or address,
(b)  a date or place of birth, marital status, relative’s identity or similar information,
(c)  a driver licence or driver licence number,
(d)  a passport or passport number,
(e)  biometric data,
(f)  a voice print,
(g)  a credit or debit card, its number or data stored or encrypted on it,
(h)  a financial account number, user name or password,
(i)  a digital signature,
(j)  a series of numbers or letters (or both) intended for use as a means of personal identification,
(k)  an ABN.
192J   Dealing with identification information
A person who deals in identification information with the intention of committing, or of facilitating the commission of, an indictable offence is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
192K   Possession of identification information
A person who possesses identification information with the intention of committing, or of facilitating the commission of, an indictable offence is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 7 years.
192L   Possession of equipment etc to make identification documents or things
A person who:
(a)  possesses any equipment, material or other thing that is capable of being used to make a document or other thing containing identification information, and
(b)  intends that the document or other thing made will be used to commit, or to facilitate the commission of, an indictable offence,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 3 years.
192M   Miscellaneous provisions
(1)  This Part does not apply to dealing in a person’s own identification information.
(2)  It is not an offence to attempt to commit an offence against this Part.
(3)  This Part applies to a person who intends to commit an indictable offence even if committing the offence concerned is impossible or the offence concerned is to be committed at a later time.
(4)  Section 309A of the Criminal Procedure Act 1986 enables a victim of an offence against this Part to obtain a certificate from a court that such an offence has been committed to assist with problems the offence has caused in relation to the victim’s personal or business affairs.
193   
(Renumbered as section 192A)
Part 4AC Money laundering
193A   Definitions
In this Part:
deal with includes:
(a)  receive, possess, conceal or dispose of, or
(b)  bring or cause to be brought into New South Wales, including transfer or cause to be transferred by electronic communication, or
(c)  engage directly or indirectly in a transaction, including receiving or making a gift.
instrument of crime means property that is used in the commission of, or to facilitate the commission of, a serious offence.
proceeds of crime means any property that is substantially derived or realised, directly or indirectly, by any person from the commission of a serious offence.
serious offence means:
(a)  an offence (including a common law offence) against the laws of New South Wales, being an offence that may be prosecuted on indictment, or
(a1)  an offence against a law of the Commonwealth that may be prosecuted on indictment, or
(b)  the offence of supplying any restricted substance prescribed for the purposes of section 16 of the Poisons and Therapeutic Goods Act 1966 that arises under section 18A (1) of that Act, or
(c)  an offence committed outside New South Wales (including outside Australia) that would be an offence referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) if it had been committed in New South Wales.
193B   Money laundering
(1)  A person who deals with proceeds of crime:
(a)  knowing that it is proceeds of crime, and
(b)  intending to conceal that it is proceeds of crime,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 20 years.
(2)  A person who deals with proceeds of crime knowing that it is proceeds of crime is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 15 years.
(3)  A person who deals with proceeds of crime being reckless as to whether it is proceeds of crime is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 10 years.
(4)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence under this section if the defendant satisfies the court that the defendant dealt with the proceeds of crime to assist the enforcement of a law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.
193C   Dealing with property suspected of being proceeds of crime
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  the person deals with property, and
(b)  there are reasonable grounds to suspect that the property is proceeds of crime, and
(c)  at the time of the dealing, the value of the property is $100,000 or more.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  the person deals with property, and
(b)  there are reasonable grounds to suspect that the property is proceeds of crime, and
(c)  at the time of the dealing, the value of the property is less than $100,000.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 3 years.
(3)  Without limiting subsection (1) (b) or (2) (b), there are reasonable grounds to suspect that property is proceeds of crime in each of the following circumstances:
(a)  in the case of subsection (1) (a)—the dealing involves a number of transactions that are structured or arranged to avoid the reporting requirements of the Financial Transaction Reports Act 1988 of the Commonwealth that would otherwise apply to the transactions,
(b)  the dealing involves a number of transactions that are structured or arranged to avoid the reporting requirements of the Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing Act 2006 of the Commonwealth that would otherwise apply to the transactions,
(c)  the dealing involves using one or more accounts held with authorised deposit-taking institutions in false names,
(d)  the dealing amounts to an offence against section 139, 140 or 141 of the Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing Act 2006 of the Commonwealth,
(e)  the value of the property involved in the dealing is, in the opinion of the trier of fact, grossly out of proportion to the defendant’s income and expenditure over a reasonable period within which the dealing occurs,
(f)  the dealing involves a significant cash transaction (within the meaning of the Financial Transaction Reports Act 1988 of the Commonwealth) and the defendant:
(i)  has contravened the defendant’s obligations under that Act relating to reporting the transaction, or
(ii)  has given false or misleading information in purported compliance with those obligations,
(g)  the dealing involves a threshold transaction (within the meaning of the Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing Act 2006 of the Commonwealth) and the defendant:
(i)  has contravened the defendant’s obligations under that Act relating to reporting the transaction, or
(ii)  has given false or misleading information in purported compliance with those obligations,
(h)  the defendant:
(i)  has stated that the dealing was engaged in on behalf of or at the request of another person, and
(ii)  has not provided information enabling the other person to be identified and located.
(4)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence under this section if the defendant satisfies the court that the defendant had no reasonable grounds for suspecting that the property was substantially derived or realised, directly or indirectly, from an act or omission constituting an offence against a law in force in the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory or another country.
193D   Dealing with property that subsequently becomes an instrument of crime
(1)  If:
(a)  a person deals with property intending that the property will become an instrument of crime, and
(b)  the property subsequently becomes an instrument of crime,
the person is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 15 years.
(2)  If:
(a)  a person deals with property being reckless as to whether the property will become an instrument of crime, and
(b)  the property subsequently becomes an instrument of crime,
the person is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 10 years.
(3)  Proceedings for an offence under this section must not be commenced without the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
(4)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence under this section if the defendant satisfies the court that the defendant dealt with the proceeds of crime to assist the enforcement of a law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.
(5)  In this section:
property means money or other valuables.
193E   Alternative verdicts
(1)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 193B (1), the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 193B (2) or (3), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the other offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(2)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 193B (2), the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 193B (3), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the other offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(2A)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 193B, the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 193C (1) or (2), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the other offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(2B)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 193C (1), the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 193C (2), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the other offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(3)  If on the trial of a person for an offence under section 193D (1), the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged, but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under section 193D (2), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the other offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
193F   Proof of other offences not required
(1)  To avoid doubt, it is not necessary, in order to prove for the purposes of an offence under this Part that property is proceeds of crime, to establish that:
(a)  a particular offence was committed in relation to the property, or
(b)  a particular person committed an offence in relation to the property.
(2)  To avoid doubt, it is not necessary, in order to prove for the purposes of an offence under this Part that property will be an instrument of crime, to establish:
(a)  an intention or risk that a particular offence will be committed in relation to the property, or
(b)  an intention or risk that a particular person will commit an offence in relation to the property.
193FA   Combining several contraventions in a single charge
(1)  A single charge of an offence against a provision of this Part may be about 2 or more instances of the defendant engaging in conduct (at the same time or different times) that constitutes an offence against a provision of this Part.
(2)  If a single charge is about 2 or more such instances and the value of the property dealt with is an element of the offence in question, that value is taken to be the sum of the values of the property dealt with in each of those instances.
193G   Transitional provision
This Part (as amended by the Criminal Legislation Amendment (Organised Crime and Public Safety) Act 2016) applies to or in respect of acts or omissions in relation to proceeds of crime arising from serious offences committed before or after the commencement of the amendments made to this Part by that Act.
Part 4ACA Cheating at gambling
Division 1 Preliminary
193H   Corrupting betting outcome of event
(1)  For the purposes of this Part, conduct corrupts a betting outcome of an event if the conduct:
(a)  affects or, if engaged in, would be likely to affect the outcome of any type of betting on the event, and
(b)  is contrary to the standards of integrity that a reasonable person would expect of persons in a position to affect the outcome of any type of betting on the event.
(2)  For the purposes of this Part, an agreement about conduct that corrupts a betting outcome of an event is an agreement between 2 or more persons under which one or more of those persons agree to engage in conduct that corrupts a betting outcome of an event.
(3)  In this Part:
agreement includes an arrangement.
conduct means an act or an omission to perform an act.
engage in conduct means:
(a)  do an act, or
(b)  omit to perform an act.
193I   Betting
(1)  In this Part, bet includes the following:
(a)  place, accept or withdraw a bet,
(b)  cause a bet to be placed, accepted or withdrawn.
(2)  A reference in this Part to betting on an event includes a reference to betting on any event contingency.
193J   Events and event contingencies
(1)  In this Part, an event means any event (whether it takes place in this State or elsewhere) on which it is lawful to bet under a law of this State, another State, a Territory or the Commonwealth.
(2)  In this Part, an event contingency means any contingency in any way connected with an event, being a contingency on which it is lawful to bet under a law of this State, another State, a Territory or the Commonwealth.
193K   Obtaining financial advantage or causing financial disadvantage
(1)  In this Part, obtain a financial advantage includes:
(a)  obtain a financial advantage for oneself or for another person, and
(b)  induce a third person to do something that results in oneself or another person obtaining a financial advantage, and
(c)  keep a financial advantage that one has,
whether the financial advantage is permanent or temporary.
(2)  In this Part, cause a financial disadvantage means:
(a)  cause a financial disadvantage to another person, or
(b)  induce a third person to do something that results in another person suffering a financial disadvantage,
whether the financial disadvantage is permanent or temporary.
193L   Proof of intention to obtain financial advantage or cause financial disadvantage
(1)  If an offence under this Part requires a person (the accused) to intend to obtain a financial advantage, or to cause a financial disadvantage, in connection with betting on an event, that element of the offence is established if, and only if, it is proved that:
(a)  the accused meant to obtain a financial advantage, or cause a financial disadvantage, in connection with betting on the event, or
(b)  the accused was aware that another person meant to obtain a financial advantage, or cause a financial disadvantage, in connection with betting on the event, as a result of the conduct the subject of the charge.
(2)  It is not necessary to prove that any financial advantage was actually obtained or any financial disadvantage was actually caused.
(3)  In this section, the conduct the subject of the charge means:
(a)  in the case of an offence against section 193N—the conduct that the accused engaged in, or
(b)  in the case of an offence against section 193O—the conduct that the accused facilitated, or
(c)  in the case of an offence against section 193P—the conduct, or the conduct the subject of the agreement, that the accused encouraged another person to conceal.
193M   Encourage
In this Part, encourage another person to engage in conduct includes command, request, propose, advise, incite, induce, persuade, authorise, urge, threaten or place pressure on the person to engage in conduct.
Division 2 Offences
193N   Engage in conduct that corrupts betting outcome of event
A person who engages in conduct that corrupts a betting outcome of an event:
(a)  knowing or being reckless as to whether the conduct corrupts a betting outcome of the event, and
(b)  with the intention of obtaining a financial advantage, or causing a financial disadvantage, in connection with any betting on the event,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
193O   Facilitate conduct that corrupts betting outcome of event
(1)  A person who facilitates conduct that corrupts a betting outcome of an event:
(a)  knowing or being reckless as to whether the conduct facilitated corrupts a betting outcome of the event, and
(b)  with the intention of obtaining a financial advantage, or causing a financial disadvantage, in connection with any betting on the event,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person facilitates conduct that corrupts a betting outcome of an event if the person:
(a)  offers to engage in conduct that corrupts a betting outcome of an event, or
(b)  encourages another person to engage in conduct that corrupts a betting outcome of an event, or
(c)  enters into an agreement about conduct that corrupts a betting outcome of an event.
193P   Concealing conduct or agreement about conduct that corrupts betting outcome of event
(1)  A person who encourages another person to conceal from any appropriate authority conduct, or an agreement about conduct, that corrupts a betting outcome of an event:
(a)  knowing or being reckless as to whether the conduct corrupts a betting outcome of the event, and
(b)  with the intention of obtaining a financial advantage, or causing a financial disadvantage, in connection with any betting on the event,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  In this section, an appropriate authority includes:
(a)  a police officer, or
(b)  a body that has the official function of controlling, regulating or supervising an event, or any betting on an event.
193Q   Use of corrupt conduct information or inside information for betting purposes
(1)  A person who possesses information in connection with an event that is corrupt conduct information, and who knows or is reckless as to whether the information is corrupt conduct information, is guilty of an offence if the person:
(a)  bets on the event, or
(b)  encourages another person to bet on the event in a particular way, or
(c)  communicates the information to another person who the first person knows or ought reasonably to know would or would be likely to bet on the event.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person who possesses information in connection with an event that is inside information, and who knows or is reckless as to whether the information is inside information, is guilty of an offence if the person:
(a)  bets on the event, or
(b)  encourages another person to bet on the event in a particular way, or
(c)  communicates the information to another person who the first person knows or ought reasonably to know would or would be likely to bet on the event.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 2 years.
(3)  Information in connection with an event is corrupt conduct information if the information is about conduct, or proposed conduct, that corrupts a betting outcome of the event.
(4)  Information in connection with an event is inside information if the information:
(a)  is not generally available, and
(b)  if it were generally available, would, or would be likely to, influence persons who commonly bet on the event in deciding whether or not to bet on the event or making any other betting decision.
(5)  Information is generally available if:
(a)  it consists of matter that is readily observable by the public, or
(b)  it has been made known in a manner that would, or would be likely to, bring it to the attention of the public, or
(c)  it consists of deductions, conclusions or inferences made or drawn from information referred to in paragraph (a) or (b).
(6)  In proceedings for an offence against subsection (1) (b) or (c) or (2) (b) or (c) it is not necessary to prove that the person encouraged to bet, or to whom information was communicated, actually bet on the event concerned.
(7)  If, on the trial of a person for an offence under subsection (1), the trier of fact is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged but is satisfied that the accused is guilty of an offence under subsection (2), it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of an offence under subsection (2), and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
(8)  A reference in this section to communicating information includes a reference to causing information to be communicated.
Part 4AD Criminal destruction and damage
Division 1 Interpretation
194   Interpretation
(1)  In this Part, a reference to property does not include a reference to property that is not of a tangible nature.
(2)  In this Part, a reference to property includes a reference to wild creatures that have been tamed or are ordinarily kept in captivity and also includes any other wild creatures or their carcasses but only if they:
(a)  have been reduced into possession that has not been lost or abandoned, or
(b)  are in the course of being reduced into possession.
(3)  For the purposes of this Part, an act done by a person under a reasonable belief that the person had a right to do the act does not constitute an element of any offence under this Part.
(4)  For the purposes of this Part, damaging property includes removing, obliterating, defacing or altering the unique identifier of the property. The unique identifier is any numbers, letters or symbols that are marked on or attached to the property as a permanent record so as to enable the property to be distinguished from similar property.
Division 2 Crimes against property generally
195   Destroying or damaging property
(1)  A person who intentionally or recklessly destroys or damages property belonging to another or to that person and another is liable:
(a)  to imprisonment for 5 years, or
(b)  if the destruction or damage is caused by means of fire or explosives, to imprisonment for 10 years.
(1A)  A person who, in the company of another person or persons, intentionally or recklessly destroys or damages property belonging to another or to that person and another is liable:
(a)  to imprisonment for 6 years, or
(b)  if the destruction or damage is caused by means of fire or explosives, to imprisonment for 11 years.
(2)  A person who, during a public disorder, intentionally or recklessly destroys or damages property belonging to another or to that person and another is liable:
(a)  to imprisonment for 7 years, or
(b)  if the destruction or damage is caused by means of fire or explosives, to imprisonment for 12 years.
196   Destroying or damaging property with intent to injure a person
(1)  A person who destroys or damages property, intending by the destruction or damage to cause bodily injury to another, is liable:
(a)  to imprisonment for 7 years, or
(b)  if the destruction or damage is caused by means of fire or explosives, to imprisonment for 14 years.
(2)  A person who, during a public disorder, destroys or damages property, intending by the destruction or damage to cause bodily injury to another, is liable:
(a)  to imprisonment for 9 years, or
(b)  if the destruction or damage is caused by means of fire or explosives, to imprisonment for 16 years.
197   Dishonestly destroying or damaging property
(1)  A person who dishonestly, with a view to making a gain for that person or another, destroys or damages property is liable:
(a)  to imprisonment for 7 years, or
(b)  if the destruction or damage is caused by means of fire or explosives, to imprisonment for 14 years.
(2)  A person who, during a public disorder, dishonestly, with a view to making a gain for that person or another, destroys or damages property is liable:
(a)  to imprisonment for 9 years, or
(b)  if the destruction or damage is caused by means of fire or explosives, to imprisonment for 16 years.
198   Destroying or damaging property with intention of endangering life
A person who destroys or damages property, intending by the destruction or damage to endanger the life of another, is liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
199   Threatening to destroy or damage property
(1)  A person who, without lawful excuse, makes a threat to another, with the intention of causing that other to fear that the threat would be carried out:
(a)  to destroy or damage property belonging to that other or to a third person, or
(b)  to destroy or damage the first-mentioned person’s own property in a way which that person knows will or is likely to endanger the life of, or to cause bodily injury to, that other or a third person,
is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
(2)  A person who, during a public disorder and without lawful excuse, makes a threat to another, with the intention of causing that other to fear that the threat would be carried out:
(a)  to destroy or damage property belonging to that other or to a third person, or
(b)  to destroy or damage the first-mentioned person’s own property in a way which that person knows will or is likely to endanger the life of, or to cause bodily injury to, that other or a third person,
is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
200   Possession etc of explosive or other article with intent to destroy or damage property
(1)  A person who has possession, custody or control of an article with the intention that it should be used to destroy or damage property belonging to:
(a)  some other person, or
(b)  the first-mentioned person or the user, or both of them, and some other person,
is liable (if the article is an explosive) to imprisonment for 7 years or (if the article is not an explosive) to imprisonment for 3 years.
(2)  A person who, during a public disorder, has possession, custody or control of an article with the intention that it should be used to destroy or damage property belonging to:
(a)  some other person, or
(b)  the first-mentioned person or the user, or both of them, and some other person,
is liable (if the article is an explosive) to imprisonment for 9 years or (if the article is not an explosive) to imprisonment for 5 years.
Division 3 Crimes relating to particular kinds of property
201   Interfering with a mine
(1)  A person who intentionally or recklessly:
(a)  causes water to run into a mine or any subterranean channel connected to it,
(b)  destroys, damages or obstructs any shaft, passage, pit, airway, waterway or drain of, or associated with, a mine,
(c)  destroys, damages or renders useless any equipment, structure, building, road or bridge belonging to, or associated with, a mine, or
(d)  hinders the working of equipment belonging to, or associated with, a mine,
is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(2)  In this section, mine includes:
(a)  a place at which gas or other petroleum is extracted from the ground, and
(b)  a place at which exploration for minerals, or for gas or other petroleum, is undertaken by mechanical means that disturb the ground, and
(c)  a place at which works are being carried out to enable the extraction of minerals, or of gas or other petroleum, from the ground, and
(d)  a former mine at which works are being carried out to decommission the mine or make it safe.
202   Causing damage etc to sea, river, canal and other works
A person who:
(a)  intentionally or recklessly destroys, damages, removes or interferes with piles or other materials that form part of, or have been fixed or placed in position in order to secure:
(i)  a sea wall or other structure designed to prevent erosion by the sea,
(ii)  the bank or bed of, or a dam, weir or lock located on, a river or canal,
(iii)  a drain, aqueduct, marsh or reservoir, or
(iv)  a dock, quay, wharf, jetty or other harbour installation,
(b)  intentionally or recklessly opens a floodgate or sluice that is located at or on a dam, weir, reservoir or watercourse, or
(c)  with the intention of obstructing or hindering the navigation of vessels or boats on a navigable river or canal:
(i)  interferes with or obstructs the flow of the river or canal,
(ii)  damages or interferes with the bank or bed of the river or canal, or
(d)  destroys, damages or interferes with any structure or equipment constructed or installed in connection with the use of the river or canal for the purposes of navigation,
is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
203   (Repealed)
Division 4 Sabotage
203A   Definitions
In this Division:
economic loss includes the disruption of government functions or the disruption of the use of public facilities.
public facility means any of the following (whether publicly or privately owned):
(a)  a government facility, including premises used by government employees in connection with official duties,
(b)  a public infrastructure facility, including a facility providing water, sewerage, energy or other services to the public,
(c)  a public transport facility, including a conveyance used to transport people or goods,
(d)  a public place, including any premises, land or water open to the public,
(e)  a public computer system, including a computer system used for the operation of a public facility, for the provision of banking services or for other services to the public.
203B   Sabotage
A person:
(a)  whose conduct causes damage to a public facility, and
(b)  who intended to cause that damage, and
(c)  who intended by that conduct to cause:
(i)  extensive destruction of property, or
(ii)  major economic loss,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 25 years.
203C   Threaten sabotage
(1)  A person who:
(a)  makes to another person a threat to damage a public facility, and
(b)  intends that person to fear that the threat will be carried out and will cause:
(i)  extensive destruction of property, or
(ii)  major economic loss,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 14 years.
(2)  In the prosecution of an offence under this section it is not necessary to prove that the person threatened actually feared that the threat would be carried out.
(3)  For the purposes of this section:
(a)  a threat may be made by any conduct, and may be explicit or implicit and conditional or unconditional, and
(b)  a threat to a person includes a threat to a group of persons, and
(c)  fear that a threat will be carried out includes apprehension that it will be carried out.
Division 5 Bushfires
203D   Definitions
In this Division:
causing a fire includes:
(a)  lighting a fire, or
(b)  maintaining a fire, or
(c)  failing to contain a fire, except where the fire was lit by another person or the fire is beyond the control of the person who lit the fire.
firefighter means a member of a fire brigade under the Rural Fires Act 1997 or the Fire and Rescue NSW Act 1989 or of any other official firefighting unit (including a unit from outside the State).
spread of a fire means spread of a fire beyond the capacity of the person who causes the fire to extinguish it.
203E   Offence
(1)  A person:
(a)  who intentionally causes a fire, and
(b)  who is reckless as to the spread of the fire to vegetation on any public land or on land belonging to another,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 21 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, recklessness may also be established by proof of intention.
(3)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence against this section if:
(a)  the person is a firefighter or acting under the direction of a firefighter, and
(b)  the person caused the fire in the course of bushfire fighting or hazard reduction operations.
(4)  If on the trial of a person for an offence against this section the jury is not satisfied that the accused is guilty of the offence charged but is satisfied on the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offence against section 100 (1) of the Rural Fires Act 1997, it may find the accused not guilty of the offence charged but guilty of the latter offence, and the accused is liable to punishment accordingly.
Part 4AE Offences relating to transport services
Division 1 Offences relating to aircraft, vessels etc
204   Destruction of, or damage to, an aircraft or vessel with intent or reckless indifference
Any person who:
(a)  with intent to cause the death of a person, or
(b)  with reckless indifference for the safety of the life of a person,
destroys or damages an aircraft or vessel is liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
205   Prejudicing the safe operation of an aircraft or vessel
A person who, whether on board the aircraft or vessel or not, does anything with the intention of prejudicing the safety of an aircraft or vessel is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
206   Assault etc on member of crew of aircraft or vessel
A person who, while on board an aircraft or vessel, assaults or threatens with violence a member of the crew of the aircraft or vessel:
(a)  so as to interfere with the functions or duties performed by the crew member in connection with the safe operation of the aircraft or vessel, or
(b)  so as to diminish the ability of the crew member to perform those functions or duties,
is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
207   Placing etc dangerous articles on board an aircraft or vessel
(1)  In this section:
dangerous article means:
(a)  a firearm, ammunition for a firearm, a weapon or an explosive, or
(b)  a substance or thing that, because of its nature or condition, could endanger the safety of an aircraft or vessel or persons on board an aircraft or vessel.
(2)  A person who:
(a)  places or carries on board an aircraft or vessel an article knowing that it is a dangerous article,
(b)  knowing that an article is a dangerous article, delivers the article to a person for the purpose of having the article placed or carried on board an aircraft or vessel, or
(c)  has possession of an article while on board an aircraft or vessel knowing that the article is a dangerous article,
is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(3)  Subsection (2):
(a)  does not apply to or in relation to anything done with an article in relation to an aircraft or vessel with the consent of the owner or operator of the aircraft or vessel where that consent is given with a knowledge of the nature or condition of the article, and
(b)  does not apply to or in relation to the carrying or placing of a firearm or ammunition for a firearm on board an aircraft or vessel with permission given in accordance with regulations in force under the Air Navigation Act 1920 of the Commonwealth.
(4)  A reference in this section to a firearm includes a reference to an imitation firearm within the meaning of the Firearms Act 1996.
208   Threatening to destroy etc an aircraft, vessel or vehicle
(1)  In this section:
threat includes:
(a)  an expression of intention, or
(b)  the making of a statement from which an expression of intention could reasonably be inferred.
transport vehicle means:
(a)  a mechanically or electrically driven vehicle that is used or designed to be used for the purpose of conveying passengers or goods, or passengers and goods, or for the purpose of drawing a vehicle or vehicles of the kind referred to in paragraph (b), or
(b)  a vehicle not so driven that is directly or indirectly connected to and drawn by, or designed to be connected to and drawn by, a vehicle of the kind first referred to in paragraph (a),
but does not include an aircraft or vessel.
(2)  A person who makes a demand of another person with a threat:
(a)  to destroy or damage, or endanger the safety of, an aircraft, vessel or transport vehicle, or
(b)  to kill, or inflict bodily injury on, persons who are in or on an aircraft, vessel or transport vehicle,
is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
(3)  A person who makes a demand of another person together with a threat to do any of the things mentioned in subsection (2) (a) or (b) and, while that threat still has effect:
(a)  discharges a firearm,
(b)  causes an explosion, or
(c)  inflicts grievous bodily harm on, or wounds, a person,
is liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
(4)  A person who makes a threat:
(a)  to destroy or damage, or endanger the safety of, an aircraft, vessel or transport vehicle, or
(b)  to kill, or inflict bodily injury on, persons who are in or on an aircraft, vessel or transport vehicle,
is liable to imprisonment for 5 years.
209   False information as to plan etc to prejudice the safety of an aircraft or vessel or persons on board an aircraft or vessel
A person who makes a statement or conveys information, knowing it to be false, to the effect, or from which it could reasonably be inferred, that there has been, is or is to be a plan, proposal, attempt, conspiracy or threat to:
(a)  take, or exercise control of, an aircraft or vessel by force,
(b)  destroy or damage, or endanger the safety of, an aircraft or vessel, or
(c)  kill, or inflict bodily injury on, persons in or on an aircraft or vessel,
is liable to imprisonment for 2 years.
210   Destroying, damaging etc an aid to navigation
A person who:
(a)  intentionally or recklessly destroys, damages, removes, conceals or interferes with a mark, device or equipment used or designed to be used to assist the navigation of aircraft or vessels, or
(b)  does any act with the intention of causing any such destruction, damage, concealment or interference,
is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
Division 2 Offences relating to railways etc
211   Criminal acts relating to railways
(1)  A person who:
(a)  does any act on or in connection with the operation of a railway, or
(b)  omits to do any act on or in connection with a railway that it is the person’s duty to do,
with the intention of causing the death of, inflicting bodily injury on or endangering the safety of any person who is on the railway, or who is in or on any locomotive or other rolling stock on the railway, is liable to imprisonment for 25 years.
(2)  A person who:
(a)  does any act on or in connection with the operation of a railway, or
(b)  omits to do any act on or in connection with the operation of a railway that it is the person’s duty to do,
with the intention of causing any locomotive or other rolling stock on the railway to be derailed, destroyed or damaged, is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.
212   Endangering passengers etc on railway
A person who, by an unlawful act or a negligent omission, endangers the safety of any person who is on, or who is being conveyed on, a railway is liable to imprisonment for 3 years.
213   Obstructing a railway
A person who:
(a)  intentionally and without lawful excuse, does an act, or omits to do an act, which causes the passage or operation of a locomotive or other rolling stock on a railway to be obstructed, or
(b)  assists a person to do or omit to do such an act, with the knowledge that the person’s intention to do or omit to do that act is without lawful excuse,
is liable to imprisonment for 2 years.
214   Obstructing a railway—verdict of misdemeanour
(1)  If, on the trial of a person for an offence under section 211, the jury is not satisfied that the person is guilty of the offence, but is satisfied that the person is guilty of an offence under section 212 or 213, it may acquit the person of the offence charged and instead find the person guilty of an offence under section 212 or 213.
(2)  If, in accordance with subsection (1), a jury finds a person guilty of an offence under section 212 or 213, the person is liable to be punished as provided by that section.
215–249   (Repealed)
Part 4A Corruptly receiving commissions and other corrupt practices
249A   Definitions
In this Part:
agent includes:
(a)  any person employed by, or acting for or on behalf of, any other person (who in this case is referred to in this Part as the person’s principal) in any capacity,
(b)  any person purporting to be, or intending to become, an agent of any other person (who in this case is referred to in this Part as the person’s principal), and
(c)  any person serving under the Crown (which in this case is referred to in this Part as the person’s principal), and
(d)  a police officer (and in this case a reference in this Part to the agent’s principal is a reference to the Crown), and
(e)  a councillor within the meaning of the Local Government Act 1993 (and in this case a reference in this Part to the agent’s principal is a reference to the local council of which the person is a councillor), and
(f)  a councillor within the meaning of the Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1983 (and in this case a reference in this Part to the agent’s principal is a reference to the New South Wales Aboriginal Land Council), and
(g)  a Board member of a Local Aboriginal Land Council within the meaning of the Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1983 (and in this case a reference in this Part to the agent’s principal is a reference to the Local Aboriginal Land Council).
benefit includes money and any contingent benefit.
249B   Corrupt commissions or rewards
(1)  If any agent corruptly receives or solicits (or corruptly agrees to receive or solicit) from another person for the agent or for anyone else any benefit:
(a)  as an inducement or reward for or otherwise on account of:
(i)  doing or not doing something, or having done or not having done something, or
(ii)  showing or not showing, or having shown or not having shown, favour or disfavour to any person,
in relation to the affairs or business of the agent’s principal, or
(b)  the receipt or any expectation of which would in any way tend to influence the agent to show, or not to show, favour or disfavour to any person in relation to the affairs or business of the agent’s principal,
the agent is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(2)  If any person corruptly gives or offers to give to any agent, or to any other person with the consent or at the request of any agent, any benefit:
(a)  as an inducement or reward for or otherwise on account of the agent’s:
(i)  doing or not doing something, or having done or not having done something, or
(ii)  showing or not showing, or having shown or not having shown, favour or disfavour to any person,
in relation to the affairs or business of the agent’s principal, or
(b)  the receipt or any expectation of which would in any way tend to influence the agent to show, or not to show, favour or disfavour to any person in relation to the affairs or business of the agent’s principal,
the firstmentioned person is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(3)  For the purposes of subsection (1), where a benefit is received or solicited by anyone with the consent or at the request of an agent, the agent shall be deemed to have received or solicited the benefit.
249C   Misleading documents or statements used or made by agents
(1)  Any agent who uses, or gives to the agent’s principal, a document which contains anything that is false or misleading in any material respect, with intent to defraud the agent’s principal, is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(2)  Any agent who makes a statement to the agent’s principal which is false or misleading in any material respect, with intent to defraud the principal, is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
249D   Corrupt inducements for advice
(1)  If a person corruptly gives a benefit to another person for giving advice to a third person, being advice which the person giving the benefit intends will influence the third person:
(a)  to enter into a contract with the person who gives the benefit, or
(b)  to appoint the person who gives the benefit to any office,
and, at the time the benefit is given, the person who gives the benefit intends the giving of the benefit not be made known to the person advised, the person who gives the benefit is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(2)  If a person corruptly receives a benefit for giving advice to another person, being advice which is likely to influence the other person:
(a)  to enter into a contract with the person who gave the benefit, or
(b)  to appoint the person who gave the benefit to any office,
and, at the time the benefit is received, the person who receives the benefit intends the giving of the benefit not be made known to the person to be advised, the person who receives the benefit is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(3)  For the purposes of subsections (1) and (2), where a benefit is given or received by anyone with the consent or at the request of another person, the other person shall be deemed to have given or received the benefit.
(4)  If any person corruptly offers or solicits a benefit for the giving of advice by one person to another:
(a)  intending that the advice will influence the person advised:
(i)  to enter into a contract with anyone, or
(ii)  to appoint anyone to any office, and
(b)  intending that the giving or receipt of the benefit not be made known to the person advised,
the firstmentioned person is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(5)  In this section:
(a)  a reference to the giving of advice includes a reference to the providing of information orally or in writing,
(b)  a reference to entering into a contract includes a reference to offering to enter into a contract, and
(c)  a reference to the appointment of a person includes a reference to:
(i)  joining in the appointment of the person, and
(ii)  voting for or assisting in the election or appointment of the person.
249E   Corrupt benefits for trustees and others
(1)  In this section, a reference to a person entrusted with property is a reference to:
(a)  a trustee of the property,
(b)  an executor or administrator appointed for the purpose of dealing with the property,
(c)  a person who, because of a power of attorney or a power of appointment, has authority over the property, and
(d)  a person managing or administering the property (or appointed or employed to manage or administer the property) under the NSW Trustee and Guardian Act 2009.
(2)  Any person who offers or gives a benefit to a person entrusted with property, and any person entrusted with property who receives or solicits a benefit for anyone, without the consent:
(a)  of each person beneficially entitled to the property, or
(b)  of the Supreme Court,
as an inducement or reward for the appointment of any person to be a person entrusted with the property, are each liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(3)  In this section, a reference to the appointment of a person includes a reference to:
(a)  joining in the appointment of the person, and
(b)  assisting in the appointment of the person.
(4)  Proceedings for an offence under this section shall not be commenced without the consent of the Attorney General.
(5)  A consent to commence any such proceedings purporting to have been signed by the Attorney General is evidence of that consent without proof of the signature of the Attorney General.
249F   Aiding, abetting etc
(1)  A person who aids, abets, counsels, procures, solicits or incites the commission of an offence under this Part is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
(2)  A person who, in New South Wales, aids, abets, counsels or procures the commission of an offence in any place outside New South Wales, being an offence punishable under the provisions of a law in force in that place which corresponds to a provision of this Part, is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for 7 years.
249G   Repayment of value of gift etc
(1)  If a person is convicted of an offence under this Part, the court may (as well as imposing a penalty for the offence) order the person to pay to such other person as the court directs the whole or part of the amount or the value, assessed by the court, of any benefit received or given by the person.
(2)  Any money payable to a person under this section may be recovered in a court of competent jurisdiction as a debt due to the person.
249H   Disqualification for office
If a person is convicted of an offence under this Part, the person is disqualified from holding civic office for the purposes of the Local Government Act 1993, for the period of 7 years from the conviction or such lesser period as the court may order.
249I   Dismissal of trivial case
If, in any proceedings for an offence under this Part, it appears to the court that the offence is of a trivial or merely technical nature, the court may in its discretion dismiss the case.
249J   Custom not a defence
In any proceedings for an offence under this Part, it is not a defence that the receiving, soliciting, giving or offering of any benefit is customary in any trade, business, profession or calling.
Part 4B Blackmail
249K   Blackmail offence
(1)  A person who makes any unwarranted demand with menaces:
(a)  with the intention of obtaining a gain or of causing a loss, or
(b)  with the intention of influencing the exercise of a public duty,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person is guilty of an offence against this subsection if the person commits an offence against subsection (1) by an accusation, or a threatened accusation, that a person has committed a serious indictable offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 14 years.
249L   Unwarranted demands—meaning
(1)  For the purposes of this Part, a demand with menaces is unwarranted unless the person believes that he or she has reasonable grounds for making the demand and reasonably believes that the use of the menaces is a proper means of reinforcing the demand.
(2)  The demand need not be a demand for money or other property.
249M   Menaces—meaning
(1)  For the purposes of this Part, menaces includes:
(a)  an express or implied threat of any action detrimental or unpleasant to another person, and
(b)  a general threat of detrimental or unpleasant action that is implied because the person making the unwarranted demand holds a public office.
(2)  A threat against an individual does not constitute a menace unless:
(a)  the threat would cause an individual of normal stability and courage to act unwillingly in response to the threat, or
(b)  the threat would cause the particular individual to act unwillingly in response to the threat and the person who makes the threat is aware of the vulnerability of the particular individual to the threat.
(3)  A threat against a Government or body corporate does not constitute a menace unless:
(a)  the threat would ordinarily cause an unwilling response, or
(b)  the threat would cause an unwilling response because of a particular vulnerability of which the person making the threat is aware.
(4)  It is immaterial whether the menaces relate to action to be taken by the person making the demand.
249N   Obtaining gain or causing loss—meaning
For the purposes of this Part:
(a)  a gain means gain in money or other property, whether temporary or permanent, and includes keeping what one has, and obtaining a gain means obtaining a gain for oneself or for another, and
(b)  a loss means loss in money or other property, whether temporary or permanent, and includes not getting what one might get, and causing a loss means causing a loss to another.
249O   Public duty—meaning
For the purposes of this Part, a public duty means a power, authority, duty or function:
(a)  that is conferred on a person as the holder of a public office, or
(b)  that a person holds himself or herself out as having as the holder of a public office.
Part 5 Forgery
Division 1 Preliminary
250   False document—meaning
(1)  For the purposes of this Part, a document is false if, and only if, the document (or any part of the document) purports:
(a)  to have been made in the form in which it is made by a person who did not in fact make it in that form, or
(b)  to have been made in the form in which it is made on the authority of a person who did not in fact authorise its making in that form, or
(c)  to have been made in the terms in which it is made by a person who did not in fact make it in those terms, or
(d)  to have been made in the terms in which it is made on the authority of a person who did not in fact authorise its making in those terms, or
(e)  to have been altered in any respect by a person who did not in fact alter it in that respect, or
(f)  to have been altered in any respect on the authority of a person who did not in fact authorise its alteration in that respect, or
(g)  to have been made or altered on a date on which, or at a place at which, or otherwise in circumstances in which, it was not in fact made or altered, or
(h)  to have been made or altered by, or on the authority of, a person who did not in fact exist.
(2)  For the purposes of this Part, a person is to be treated as making a false document if the person alters a document so as to make it false within the meaning of this section (whether or not it is false in some other respect apart from that alteration).
(3)  For the purpose of the application of this section, a document that purports to be a true copy of another document is to be treated as if it were the original document.
251   Inducing acceptance of false document
(1)  In this Part, a reference to inducing a person to accept a false document as genuine includes a reference to causing a machine to respond to the document as if it were a genuine document.
(2)  If it is necessary for the purposes of this Part to prove an intent to induce some person to accept a false document as genuine, it is not necessary to prove that the accused intended so to induce a particular person.
252   Interpretative provisions relating to obtaining property, financial advantage and financial disadvantage
The following provisions of Part 4AA (Fraud) also apply to this Part:
(a)  section 192C (Obtaining property belonging to another),
(b)  section 192D (Obtaining financial advantage or causing financial disadvantage).
Division 2 Forgery
253   Forgery—making false document
A person who makes a false document with the intention that the person or another will use it:
(a)  to induce some person to accept it as genuine, and
(b)  because of its being accepted as genuine:
(i)  to obtain any property belonging to another, or
(ii)  to obtain any financial advantage or cause any financial disadvantage, or
(iii)  to influence the exercise of a public duty,
is guilty of the offence of forgery.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
Division 3 Offences related to forgery
254   Using false document
A person who uses a false document, knowing that it is false, with the intention of:
(a)  inducing some person to accept it as genuine, and
(b)  because of its being accepted as genuine:
(i)  obtaining any property belonging to another, or
(ii)  obtaining any financial advantage or causing any financial disadvantage, or
(iii)  influencing the exercise of a public duty,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
255   Possession of false document
A person who has in his or her possession a false document, knowing that it is false, with the intention that the person or another will use it:
(a)  to induce some person to accept it as genuine, and
(b)  because of its being accepted as genuine:
(i)  to obtain any property belonging to another, or
(ii)  to obtain any financial advantage or cause any financial disadvantage, or
(iii)  to influence the exercise of a public duty,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
256   Making or possession of equipment etc for making false documents
(1)  A person who makes, or has in his or her possession, any equipment, material or other thing designed or adapted for the making of a false document:
(a)  knowing that it is so designed or adapted, and
(b)  with the intention that the person or another person will use the equipment, material or other thing to commit the offence of forgery,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A person who, without reasonable excuse, makes or has in his or her possession any equipment, material or other thing designed or adapted for the making of a false document, knowing that it is so designed or adapted, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 3 years.
(3)  A person who possesses any equipment, material or other thing that is capable of being used to make a false document, with the intention that the person or another person will use the equipment, material or other thing to commit the offence of forgery, is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 3 years.
(4)  This section applies in respect of any equipment, material or other thing that is designed or adapted for the purpose of making a false document whether or not it is also designed or adapted for another purpose.
(5)  This section applies to a person who intends to commit an offence even if committing the offence concerned is impossible or the offence concerned is to be committed at a later time.
(6)  It is not an offence to attempt to commit an offence against this section.
257–307   (Repealed)
Part 5A False and misleading information
307A   False or misleading applications
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  the person makes a statement (whether orally, in a document or in any other way), and
(b)  the person does so knowing that, or being reckless as to whether, the statement:
(i)  is false or misleading, or
(ii)  omits any matter or thing without which the statement is misleading, and
(c)  the statement is made in connection with an application for an authority or benefit, and
(d)  any of the following subparagraphs apply:
(i)  the statement is made to a public authority,
(ii)  the statement is made to a person who is exercising or performing any power, authority, duty or function under, or in connection with, a law of the State,
(iii)  the statement is made in compliance or purported compliance with a law of the State.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 2 years, or a fine of 200 penalty units, or both.
(2)  Subsection (1) does not apply as a result of subsection (1) (b) (i) if the statement is not false or misleading in a material particular.
(3)  Subsection (1) does not apply as a result of subsection (1) (b) (ii) if the statement did not omit any matter or thing without which the statement is misleading in a material particular.
(4)  The burden of establishing a matter referred to in subsection (2) or (3) lies on the accused person.
(5)  In this section:
application includes any claim, request or other form of application and also includes, in the case of an application for an authority, any application for the issue, grant, amendment, transfer, renewal, restoration or replacement of the authority and any other application in connection with the authority.
authority includes any licence, permit, consent, approval, registration or other form of authority.
benefit includes any advantage and is not limited to property.
307B   False or misleading information
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  the person gives information to another person, and
(b)  the person does so knowing that the information:
(i)  is false or misleading, or
(ii)  omits any matter or thing without which the information is misleading, and
(c)  any of the following subparagraphs apply:
(i)  the information is given to a public authority,
(ii)  the information is given to a person who is exercising or performing any power, authority, duty or function under, or in connection with, a law of the State,
(iii)  the information is given in compliance or purported compliance with a law of the State.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 2 years, or a fine of 200 penalty units, or both.
(2)  Subsection (1) does not apply as a result of subsection (1) (b) (i) if the information is not false or misleading in a material particular.
(3)  Subsection (1) does not apply as a result of subsection (1) (b) (ii) if the information did not omit any matter or thing without which the information is misleading in a material particular.
(4)  Subsection (1) does not apply as a result of subsection (1) (c) (i) if, before the information was given by a person to the public authority, the public authority did not take reasonable steps to inform the person of the existence of the offence against subsection (1).
(5)  Subsection (1) does not apply as a result of subsection (1) (c) (ii) if, before the information was given by a person (the first person) to the person mentioned in that subparagraph (the second person), the second person did not take reasonable steps to inform the first person of the existence of the offence against subsection (1).
(6)  The burden of establishing a matter referred to in subsection (2), (3), (4) or (5) lies on the accused person.
(7)  For the purposes of subsections (4) and (5), it is sufficient if the following form of words is used:
“Giving false or misleading information is a serious offence.”
307C   False or misleading documents
(1)  A person is guilty of an offence if:
(a)  the person produces a document to another person, and
(b)  the person does so knowing that the document is false or misleading, and
(c)  the document is produced in compliance or purported compliance with a law of the State.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 2 years, or a fine of 200 penalty units, or both.
(2)  Subsection (1) does not apply if the document is not false or misleading in a material particular.
(3)  Subsection (1) does not apply to a person who produces a document if the document is accompanied by a written statement signed by the person or, in the case of a body corporate, by a competent officer of the body corporate:
(a)  stating that the document is, to the knowledge of the first-mentioned person, false or misleading in a material particular, and
(b)  setting out, or referring to, the material particular in which the document is, to the knowledge of the first-mentioned person, false or misleading.
(4)  The burden of establishing a matter referred to in subsection (2) or (3) lies on the accused person.
Part 6 Computer offences
308   General definitions
In this Part:
data includes:
(a)  information in any form, or
(b)  any program (or part of a program).
data held in a computer includes:
(a)  data entered or copied into the computer, or
(b)  data held in any removable data storage device for the time being in the computer, or
(c)  data held in a data storage device on a computer network of which the computer forms part.
data storage device means any thing (for example a disk or file server) containing or designed to contain data for use by a computer.
electronic communication means a communication of information in any form by means of guided or unguided electromagnetic energy.
serious computer offence means:
(a)  an offence against section 308C, 308D or 308E, or
(b)  conduct in another jurisdiction that is an offence in that jurisdiction and that would constitute an offence against section 308C, 308D or 308E if the conduct occurred in this jurisdiction.
308A   Meaning of access to data, modification of data and impairment of electronic communication
(1)  In this Part, access to data held in a computer means:
(a)  the display of the data by the computer or any other output of the data from the computer, or
(b)  the copying or moving of the data to any other place in the computer or to a data storage device, or
(c)  in the case of a program—the execution of the program.
(2)  In this Part, modification of data held in a computer means:
(a)  the alteration or removal of the data, or
(b)  an addition to the data.
(3)  In this Part, impairment of electronic communication to or from a computer includes:
(a)  the prevention of any such communication, or
(b)  the impairment of any such communication on an electronic link or network used by the computer,
but does not include a mere interception of any such communication.
(4)  A reference in this Part to any such access, modification or impairment is limited to access, modification or impairment caused (whether directly or indirectly) by the execution of a function of a computer.
308B   Meaning of unauthorised access, modification or impairment
(1)  For the purposes of this Part, access to or modification of data, or impairment of electronic communication, by a person is unauthorised if the person is not entitled to cause that access, modification or impairment.
(2)  Any such access, modification or impairment is not unauthorised merely because the person has an ulterior purpose for that action.
(3)  For the purposes of an offence under this Part, a person causes any such unauthorised access, modification or impairment if the person’s conduct substantially contributes to the unauthorised access, modification or impairment.
308C   Unauthorised access, modification or impairment with intent to commit serious indictable offence
(1)  A person who causes any unauthorised computer function:
(a)  knowing it is unauthorised, and
(b)  with the intention of committing a serious indictable offence, or facilitating the commission of a serious indictable offence (whether by the person or by another person),
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: The maximum penalty applicable if the person had committed, or facilitated the commission of, the serious indictable offence in this jurisdiction.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, an unauthorised computer function is:
(a)  any unauthorised access to data held in any computer, or
(b)  any unauthorised modification of data held in any computer, or
(c)  any unauthorised impairment of electronic communication to or from any computer.
(3)  For the purposes of this section, a serious indictable offence includes an offence in any other jurisdiction that would be a serious indictable offence if committed in this jurisdiction.
(4)  A person may be found guilty of an offence against this section:
(a)  even if committing the serious indictable offence concerned is impossible, or
(b)  whether the serious indictable offence is to be committed at the time of the unauthorised conduct or at a later time.
(5)  It is not an offence to attempt to commit an offence against this section.
308D   Unauthorised modification of data with intent to cause impairment
(1)  A person who:
(a)  causes any unauthorised modification of data held in a computer, and
(b)  knows that the modification is unauthorised, and
(c)  intends by the modification to impair access to, or to impair the reliability, security or operation of, any data held in a computer, or who is reckless as to any such impairment,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A conviction for an offence against this section is an alternative verdict to a charge for:
(a)  an offence against section 195 (Destroying or damaging property), or
(b)  an offence against section 308E (Unauthorised impairment of electronic communication).
308E   Unauthorised impairment of electronic communication
(1)  A person who:
(a)  causes any unauthorised impairment of electronic communication to or from a computer, and
(b)  knows that the impairment is unauthorised, and
(c)  intends to impair electronic communication to or from the computer, or who is reckless as to any such impairment,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 10 years.
(2)  A conviction for an offence against this section is an alternative verdict to a charge for:
(a)  an offence against section 195 (Destroying or damaging property), or
(b)  an offence against section 308D (Unauthorised modification of data with intent to cause impairment).
308F   Possession of data with intent to commit serious computer offence
(1)  A person who is in possession or control of data:
(a)  with the intention of committing a serious computer offence, or
(b)  with the intention of facilitating the commission of a serious computer offence (whether by the person or by another person),
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 3 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, possession or control of data includes:
(a)  possession of a computer or data storage device holding or containing the data or of a document in which the data is recorded, and
(b)  control of data held in a computer that is in the possession of another person (whether the computer is in this jurisdiction or outside this jurisdiction).
(3)  A person may be found guilty of an offence against this section even if committing the serious computer offence concerned is impossible.
(4)  It is not an offence to attempt to commit an offence against this section.
308G   Producing, supplying or obtaining data with intent to commit serious computer offence
(1)  A person who produces, supplies or obtains data:
(a)  with the intention of committing a serious computer offence, or
(b)  with the intention of facilitating the commission of a serious computer offence (whether by the person or by another person),
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 3 years.
(2)  For the purposes of this section, produce, supply or obtain data includes:
(a)  produce, supply or obtain data held or contained in a computer or data storage device, or
(b)  produce, supply or obtain a document in which the data is recorded.
(3)  A person may be found guilty of an offence against this section even if committing the serious computer offence concerned is impossible.
(4)  It is not an offence to attempt to commit an offence against this section.
308H   Unauthorised access to or modification of restricted data held in computer (summary offence)
(1)  A person:
(a)  who causes any unauthorised access to or modification of restricted data held in a computer, and
(b)  who knows that the access or modification is unauthorised, and
(c)  who intends to cause that access or modification,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 2 years.
(2)  An offence against this section is a summary offence.
(3)  In this section:
restricted data means data held in a computer, being data to which access is restricted by an access control system associated with a function of the computer.
(4)  Proceedings for an offence against this section must be commenced not later than 12 months from when the offence was alleged to have been committed.
308I   Unauthorised impairment of data held in computer disk, credit card or other device (summary offence)
(1)  A person:
(a)  who causes any unauthorised impairment of the reliability, security or operation of any data held on a computer disk, credit card or other device used to store data by electronic means, and
(b)  who knows that the impairment is unauthorised, and
(c)  who intends to cause that impairment,
is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: Imprisonment for 2 years.
(2)  An offence against this section is a summary offence.
(3)  For the purposes of this section, impairment of the reliability, security or operation of data is unauthorised if the person is not entitled to cause that impairment.
309, 310   (Repealed)
Part 6A Offences relating to escape from lawful custody
310A   Definitions
In this Part:
correctional centre means a correctional centre within the meaning of the Crimes (Administration of Sentences) Act 1999, and includes a correctional complex within the meaning of that Act.
inmate has the same meaning as it has in the Crimes (Administration of Sentences) Act 1999.
310B   Rescuing inmate from lawful custody
Any person who, by force, rescues or attempts to rescue an inmate from lawful custody is guilty of an offence.
Maximum penalty: imprisonment for 14 years.
310C   Aiding escape
Any person:
(a)  who aids an inmate in escaping or attempting to escape from lawful custody, or
(b)  who conveys anything or causes anything to be conveyed into a correctional centre or to an inmate with intent to facilitate the escape of an inmate,
is guilty of an offen